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Weeding and deselection bibliography

Find an annotated bibliography of resources for weeding and deselecting materials, compiled by OCLC staff.
Library weeding  |  Bibliometrics  |  Collaborative collection management  |  Collection assessment  |  Collection use  |  Collection futures
Collections research  |  Digital preservation  |  Library space planning  |  Offsite book storage  |  Shared print archives and repositories

Library weeding

Jump to a specific sub-topic: Case studies and projects | Discards: what to do with them? | Faculty investment | In the news | Opinion | Policies | Pre-2000 citations | Questions of cost | Reference collections | Theory and practice

Library weeding—Case studies and projects

Nurturing collaboration while weeding collections: A new interdepartmental workflow (
Withers, Rob
OH-IUG Conference 2022
Reviewing, transferring, and withdrawing materials is normally a hands-on and collaborative interdepartmental process. Last spring, our institution decided to expedite a closure of a branch library and consolidate holdings to the central location. These changes necessitated a rapid review of collections in both buildings so that a timely consolidation of materials could take place. This coincided with the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, when many library staff were working from home. In this session, staff from collection management, technical services and circulation will share their experiences in establishing and piloting a new workflow that included standardized weeding lists created by technical services, a sharing method to deliver the lists to selectors, maintaining list uniformity when further passing lists to circulation, and back to selectors. Other aspects of the project included, providing facilities access, and adding circulation staff to assist pulling materials from the shelves. Presenters will share progress on the project and identify which new practices we envision retaining or not for future reviews of the collection.
In their own words: Perspectives on collection weeding from library employees and teaching faculty - ScienceDirect
Broadbent, Dan, Goates, Michael C., et al.
The Journal of Academic Librarianship
July 2022
Following a Science and Engineering collection weeding project of over 350,000 print items, our research team conducted interviews with 20 library employees and 19 teaching faculty involved in the project. The purpose of the interviews was to assess the interviewees' perspectives and feelings relating to the time required to complete the project, inter- and intra- library communication, the decision-making processes, and their personal assessment of the costs and benefits of the project. The interviewees also offered their views of the overall project's successes and areas for improvement. Drawing from a qualitative analysis of the interviews, we provide guidance for other academic libraries preparing to undertake their own collection weeding projects including suggestions for what to expect and what to manage throughout the process.
Data-Driven Monographic Weeding Project for a Medium-Sized Government Library: A Case Study: Collection Management: Vol 47, No 1 (
Hieb, Adrienne & Seldin, Sian
Collection Management Vol 47 No 1
December 2021
Libraries of all sizes are daunted by taking on a major collection review project, especially conducting the process in an efficient manner. This case study discusses a medium-sized government library’s successful data-driven weeding project. It explains how we planned the project, established goals, and created and executed workflows, all while considering the unique characteristics of our collection. Our project used two innovative and interconnected components: (1) a process using various criteria to systematically remove from consideration the titles we needed to keep, and (2) a data-driven process using different inputs and automation strategies that ensured we made high-quality decisions efficiently.
Weeding Ebooks at an Academic Library * WINNER OF THE 2022 PRACTICAL ACADEMIC LIBRARIANSHIP AWARD * | Practical Academic Librarianship: The International Journal of the SLA Academic Division (
Jaffy, Marc
Practical Academic Librarianship: The International Journal of the SLA Academic Division Vol 11 No 1 (2021)
This paper reports on an ebook weeding project conducted by the Franklin University Library. It discusses the library’s reasons for weeding its ebooks, how the library weeded its DDA pool, and the challenges the library encountered weeding ebooks. The library ultimately conducted a more limited weeding of its ebook collection than initially planned, and this paper explains the reasons for this, the decisions the library made and the method used to conduct the limited ebook weeding project.

A Large-Scale Collection Review with Faculty Collaboration: A Comprehensive View | Burke | Library Resources & Technical Services
Burke, David, et al.
January 2021
Villanova University’s Falvey Memorial Library developed a multiyear comprehensive and strategic collection review of print monographs. In this paper, the authors focus on the operational components of the project, such as generating potential deselection lists with GreenGlass, convening working groups to plan the project, developing strategies for faculty outreach and faculty collection review, and analyzing deselection and retention data. The authors share decision-making processes as well as lessons learned that were involved in the project design and implementation phases throughout the extensive collection review project.
Following a Science and Engineering collection weeding project of over 350,000 print items, our research team conducted interviews with 20 library employees and 19 teaching faculty involved in the project. The purpose of the interviews was to assess the interviewees' perspectives and feelings relating to the time required to complete the project, inter- and intra- library communication, the decision-making processes, and their personal assessment of the costs and benefits of the project. The interviewees also offered their views of the overall project's successes and areas for improvement. Drawing from a qualitative analysis of the interviews, we provide guidance for other academic libraries preparing to undertake their own collection weeding projects including suggestions for what to expect and what to manage throughout the process.
Weeding the Zs: A Collaborative Rightsizing Project in A Large Academic Library
Procter, Julia
The Serials Librarian 81 (3-4) 2021: 239-245
In the fall of 2018, Penn State Libraries took the first step in responding to a library committee recommendation to rightsize the collection at the University Park campus in preparation for renovations taking place over the next four to five years. A collaborative weeding project involving items with Z LoC classification began in an effort to establish criteria and processes that could pave the way for future weeding projects and processes for weeding on an ongoing basis. This article explores Penn State Libraries’ effort to engage in a collaborative weeding project focused on a collection that has great relevance to the profession.
Collection weeding: Innovative processes and tools to ease the burden
Nelson, Gregory M.; Goates, Michael C.; Piston, David S.; Frost, Megan; Broadbend, Dan
The Journal of Academic Librarianship: Vol 46, No. 5 (2020)
The Science and Engineering librarians at Brigham Young University evaluated their entire print collection of over 350,000 items within one year, significantly reducing the number of items kept on the open shelves and the physical collection footprint. Keys to accomplishing this project were extensive preparation, tracking progress and accountability facilitated by Google Sheets and an interactive GIS stacks map, and stakeholder feedback facilitated by a novel web-based tool. This case study discusses guidelines to follow and pitfalls to avoid for any organization that is considering a large- or small-scale collection evaluation project.
"The Life-Changing Magic of Tidying Up": The Art of Decluttering and Organizing Library Collections
Spomer, Michelle; Estelle-Holmer, Suzanne; and Limpitlaw, Amy
ATLA Summary of Proceedings (2018): 131-140.

This presentation discusses the process of how “tidying up” parts of their collections, while in some ways a daunting process, is nevertheless a worthwhile and important endeavor for libraries. The parts of the library collection considered in this presentation specifically were periodical subscriptions, reference works, and standing orders for book series.
Behind the Scenes, Ready for Action: Cultivating and Conveying a Large-Scale Humanities Monograph Weeding Project with Campus Stakeholders
Gauder, Heidi and Jenkins, Fred W.
Roesch Library Faculty Presentations. 53. 2018.

This presentation describes the steps taken to cultivate and engage the campus in a large-scale monograph deselection project, with special attention to the humanities disciplines.
Making Room for Change: Rightsizing PSU's Axe Library Serials Collection
Pope, Barbara M.
Kansas Library Association College and University Libraries Section Proceedings: Vol. 7:No. 1. (2017)

At Pittsburg State University’s Axe Library, library staff face the challenge of balancing the print and electronic serials collections at a university whose programs sometimes do not draw enough on library resources. This paper discusses how  the library has been rightsizing the serials collection, taking a thoughtful approach to serials collection development and weeding, reaching out to faculty for input, and repurposing space.
Making Room for New Spaces and Services: Engaging Your Community to Help During the Deselection Process
Lindsey, Robert M.; Leon, Jorge A. Jr.; and Taggart, Lindsey
Kansas Library Association College and University Libraries Section Proceedings: Vol. 7:No. 1. (2017)

Leonard H. Axe Library at Pittsburg State University (PSU) is undergoing a 5-year building renovation focused on creating new services and spaces, including technology rich spaces, media recording rooms, group study spaces, and more. This paper discusses how Library Services tackled the task of reducing the circulation collection footprint by approximately fifty percent by engaging campus stakeholders as active participants during the de-selection process.
Weeding by Committee: Involving Faculty in the Deselection Process
J. Michael DeMars and Roll, Ann
IFLA Conference 2016. (2/9/2016)

At California State University, Fullerton’s (CSUF) Pollak Library, library staff developed a web-based tool to allow teaching faculty to provide feedback on deselection candidates on a title by-title basis. This paper discusses the creation and evolution of this tool and how it was used in both a small scale pilot and a second larger effort and how it impacted the project and faculty involvement.
Weeding Out in the Open: What Will the Neighbors Think?
J. Michael DeMars and Roll, Ann
Proceedings of the Charleson Conference 2015.

In preparing for a monograph deselection project at California State University, Fullerton’s (CSUF) Pollak Library, library faculty and administration grappled with how to productively and efficiently involve the large CSUF teaching faculty in the weeding process. Library systems staff developed an innovative web‐based tool that enables faculty to easily provide feedback on deselection candidates on a title by title basis.
High-Yield, Low-Risk Deselection in an Academic Library
Giffin, Meredith
IFLA Conference 2016. (2/9/2016)

A renovation-driven deselection project at Concordia University in Montreal is discussed. Here, the pursuit of reducing duplication turned out to be a successful strategy for meeting their space reduction goals.
A Scalable Model for Monograph Assessment: A Case Study at Musselman Library
Ward, Amy E.
Musselman Library Staff Publications. Paper 52. (2016)

This presentation outlines the design of the 2012 assessment model that has become the foundation for assessing [Gettysburg College's] circulating monograph collection, along with how the original model has been adjusted to assess more focused targets and larger initiatives, each with rapidly approaching deadlines. Finally, this presentation summarizes the workflows needed to support continuous decision making and provides a sample of the results from the assessment initiatives described.
Slimming Down: Why not feed your need to weed?
Boulos, Valerie L.; Born, Judy; Long, Alicia K.; and Zhang, Ying
Works of the FIU Libraries. Paper 40. (2016)

The presentation on multiple weeding efforts at Florida International Universities libraries looks at shelving capacity, project drivers, workflows, and numerous project details.
Deselection of Print Monographs in the Humanities and Social Sciences in the Digital Age
Oliva, Victor T.
Collection Building, Vol. 35 Iss: 2.  2016.

A brief overview is provided to delineate why deselection is important,and how it can be accomplished. A literature review was prepared. It included a review of deselection at small, medium sized and large college and university libraries. The pros and cons of print versus e-books for collection development were reviewed, including four case studies. The feasibility of replacing print reference titles with e-books is also covered. A review of the monograph weeding project at Adelphi University Library in the humanities and social sciences is provided. Conclusions and a projection of next steps are also included.
Next-generation collection management: A case study of quality control and weeding e-books in an academic library
Waugh, M., Donlin, M., & Braunstein, S.
Collection Management, 40(1), 17-26.  2015.

Collection managers should analyze and control the quality of digital collections by active weeding of e-books. Certain print weeding strategies apply to digital material even though digital material does not take up physical space. One such strategy is the removal of outdated content, especially in the subjects of health and technology, in order to maintain updated and accurate collections. However, the e-book format presents some additional and different quality control challenges. In this article, the authors describe an e-book weeding project at the Louisiana State University Libraries that addresses and demonstrates these challenges.
The New Role of Librarians and Libraries: Removing the Silence Signs
Carriuolo, Nancy and Tovah Reis
The New England Journal of Higher Education, August 10, 2015

The president and library dean at Rhode Island College describe the planning and communication process that was used in a deselection project aimed at freeing up space on campus. This is a good account of how different stakeholders were engaged in the process, paving the way for a successful project.
Facilitating the Serendipitous Discovery of Information: Planning and Weeding the Fine Art Collection
Zanin-Yost, Alessia and Katy Ginanni
Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal), Paper 1132 2014

This article explains the collaborative undertaking of the arts liaison and the collection development librarian in weeding the fine art print collection at Western Carolina University.
Data-Driven Deselection: Multiple Point Data Using a Decision Support Tool in an Academic Library
Snyder, Cynthia Ehret
Collection Management, V39, Issue 1. p17-31. 2014

Rules-based weeding, based on multipoint data, enables librarians to make better-informed choices about the collection. Using a decision support tool forced Olin librarians to make weeding decisions based on multiple data points such as rarity, statewide repository candidates, or inclusion on recommended lists for college libraries.
Assessing University Library Print Book Collections and Deselection: A Case Study at The National University of Ireland Maynooth
Murphy, Elizabeth
New Review of Academic Librarianship, V19, Issue 3. p256-273. 2013

This article discusses an assessment and deselection project of the modern print book collections in the John Paul II Library, National University of Ireland Maynooth.
Developing and Implementing a Disapproval Plan: One University Library's Experience
Way, Doug and Julie Garrison
College & Research Libraries News, V74, N6. p284-287. June 2013

This article discusses a project at Grand Valley State University to implement a "Disapproval Plan."
Three Libraries, Three Weeding Projects: Collaborative Weeding Projects Within a Shared Print Repository
Gillies, Scott and Carol Stephenson
Collection Management 37 (3-4) (2012): 205-222 2012

This article outlines three specific collaborative weeding projects: monographs, science/technology/medical journals, and a JSTOR journals last copy project.
Collier Library Weeding
University of North Alabama Last Updated: August 22, 2012

University of North Alabama weeding project blog. Updates and more on the project.
Space Space Space: Weeding and What Remains
UCI Libraries
University of California Irvine Web Site Last Updated: Apr 27, 2012

A LibGuide with information about UCI's "year-round" weeding program. Contains explanations and detailed procedural and policy information.
Charles V. Park Library spends $4 million yearly updating book collection
Hicks, Justin
Central Michigan Life January 19, 2012

Campus paper interviews the library dean, who focuses on all the new materials acquired to explain the need to weed.
More than just low-hanging fruit: A collaborative approach to weeding in academic libraries
Soma, Amy K. and Lisa M. Sjober
Collection Management 36(1) (2010): 17-28 2010

This article focuses on using collaboration to develop and implement a comprehensive and systematic approach to weeding in a small academic library.
When Worlds Collide: Dismantling the science fiction and fantasy collection at the University of New Brunswick, Saint John
Nikkel, T. and L. Belway
Collection Management 34(3) (2009): 194-208 2009
A Dental Library Book Collection Intervention: From Diagnosis to Cure
Cox, Janice. E. and Barbara A. Gushrowski
Journal of Hospital Librarianship 8(3) (2008): 352-357 2008

This article summarizes the rationale, resources, and process used by Indiana University School of Dentistry Library (IUSDL) staff to undertake a comprehensive book collection intervention (a.k.a. book weeding project).
Moving from good effort to best practice--refining a weeding process in a dental school library
Gushrowski, B. A.
Against the Grain 19(3) (2007): 26, 28, 30, 32 2007
I've deaccessioned and lived to tell about it: Confessions of an unrepentant reappraiser
Greene, M.A.
Archival Issues 30(1) (2006): 7-22 2006

This article postulates that our profession's reluctance to confront reappraisal and deaccessioning is both theoretical and practical, but that on both counts, we have inadvertently weakened our repositories and our professional standing by our unwillingness and lack of action.
The Louis Stokes Health Sciences Library: the Howard University Move Experience
Bryant, Darcel A.
Journal of the Medical Library Association. 92(2)(2004):251-256 2004

Note the section on "Deciding what to move".
Collection management: Assessing and weeding the foreign language collection
Williams, Pauline C. and Brent N. Halvonik
College & Undergraduate Libraries 11(2) (2004): 103-127 2004
Comprehensive weeding of an academic health sciences collection: The Briscoe Library experience
Tobia, Rajia C.
Journal of the Medical Library Association 90(1) (2002): 94-98

This article describes the experiences of one academic health sciences library and its comprehensive weeding project.

Library weeding—Discards: what to do with them?

Discarded delights: The joy of ex-library books (
Davies, Richard
June 2021
Sample: Let's start with the definition. An ex-library book is a book that once belonged to a public library or institution and has been 'discarded' after being deemed no longer useful. These books often gravitate into the hands of used booksellers and end up for sale on online marketplaces such as AbeBooks.

A 'friends of the library' sale is also the obvious place to find ex-library copies and an excellent way to support a worthy cause. It's important to remember that a book described as ex-libris is something different. Ex Libris, a Latin phrase, means "from the library of" and describes a book that comes from a personal library.
The library de-supply chain
Lugg, Rick
22 October 2013
Withdrawals and Deposits
Lugg, Rick
Sample and Hold (blog) September 2011

The first of two blog posts which look at the costs and benefits of selling withdrawn titles.
Withdrawals and Deposits (2)
Lugg, Rick
Sample and Hold (blog) September 2011

The second of two blog posts which look at the costs and benefits of selling withdrawn titles.
Disposition Options
Lugg, Rick
Sample and Hold (blog) April 2011
The Dumpster Dilemma
Lugg, Rick
Sample and Hold (blog) November 2010

This blog post addresses the sensitive business of discarding books on-campus.
Maximizing Revenue from Selling withdrawn Books and Unwanted Gifts (YouTube video)
Holley, Robert
ALCTS Webinar (YouTube) October 27, 2010

An ALCTS webcast, 1 hour 6 minutes.
Web resources
Ideas for Disposing of Weeded Books and/or Used Books

Library Success Best Practices Wiki Last Updated: January 3, 2012
Green Weeding Wiki
PB Works Wikis, Last Updated: July 7, 2011
Book Donations Bookmarks
American Library Association

Delicious bookmarking service
Vendor/Program websites
Sellers Page, Alibris Books

Alibris Web Site
AMS (American Mathematical Society) Book and Journal Donation Program
American Mathematical Society (AMS)

AMS Web Site
Better World Books - Library Discards & Donations
Better World Books

Better World Books Web Site
B-LOGISTICS - Partnering with libraries to manage materials
Bookfriends International, NFP
Bookfriends International Web Site
KirtasBooks - Digitizing Books on Demand
Kirtas Books Web Site Web Site

"Finding Homes for Chem/Sci/Tech Books"

Library weeding—Faculty investment

Full article: Transforming Library Collections and Supporting Student Learning with Collection Mapping (
Herren, Arenthia
The Serials Librarian: From the Printed Page to the Digital Age Vol 80, 2021 Issue 1-4
Collection management and development projects are essential to ensure students have access to resources that best align with the learning outcomes of their coursework. After evaluating their collection, the librarians at Florida SouthWestern State College (FSW) overhauled their print collection to make sure the titles available to students matched the college’s curricula and degree programs. Collection mapping played an important role in gathering data, allowing the librarians to streamline print collections with a focus on curricular needs as well as forming partnerships with faculty in developing the new collection. The presentation covered the FSW Libraries’ project goals, implementation, and outcomes.
Talking with Faculty about Library Collections (Revisited)
Lugg, Rick
SCS Insight November 19, 2014
Talking with Faculty about Library Collections
Lugg, Rick
Sample and Hold (blog) May 2012
WesWeeding - Campus Discussion Postings
Wesleyan University Library, Last Updated: February 9, 2012

Part of the WesWeeding Blog which focuses on campus discussions around weeding.
Public Relations and Library Weeding
Metz, Paul, and Caryl Gray
Journal of Academic Librarianship 31(3) (2005): 273-279 2005

Although many librarians placated the concerns of their faculty by informally describing the process to them, all library staff were repeatedly encouraged to refer questions and criticism to the director of collection development.
The Difficult Patron in the Academic Library
Simmonds, Patience L. and Jane L. Ingold
The Reference Librarian 36(No. 75/76), p 55-56 2002

Seeks to differentiate between problem issues and problem patrons

Library weeding—In the news

When Weeding Books, Librarians Are Attending to Inclusion and Diversity, SLJ Survey Shows | School Library Journal
Kletter, Melanie
June 2021
Sample: The data is in, and it shows that librarians across the country are changing the criteria they use to weed books, paying more attention to unconscious racial bias, inclusion, and diversity issues when culling titles.

They’re also focusing more on diverse reads and #OwnVoices books when purchasing new titles and making collection development choices, according to SLJ’s Children’s/YA Collection Development and Weeding Survey. The survey included 784 responses from librarians who work at both public libraries and schools.
Douglas Murray slams library for removing books to ensure inclusivity | Sky News Australia
Panahi, Rita
Sky News September 15, 2023
Sample: Author Douglas Murray has slammed a decision by a Canadian public school library to implement an equity-based book-weeding process to ensure all books are inclusive.

The Erindale Secondary School library has removed all books prior to 2008 in response to a provincial directive from the Minister of Education, CBC News reports.

Mr Murray said this initiative should be regarded with “contempt” and a “real degree of seriousness”.
Alameda County Trashes Library Books
Levin, Sam
East Bay Express March 12, 2014

"Library administrators are discarding older books in bulk, prompting a backlash from longtime staff members."
Art Library Closing/Consolidation Meeting
Batte, A.
Wesleying April 2, 2012

Wesleyan University
6 Reasons We're In Another 'Book-Burning' Period in History
Davis, S. Peter October 11, 2011
The Great Purge of Our Libraries
Wilding, Michael
Quadrant Online LV (7-8) July–August 2011
On Mistakenly Shredding a Prized Collection
Tracy, Carla
The Chronicle of Higher Education July 25, 2011

Augustana College, Illinois
The curious case of shrinking libraries coffee carts and 'the dust test'
Pearce, Gary
The DRUM May 25, 2011
You can judge a book by its 'dust test' as university library cuts its staff and stocks
Narushima, Yuko
The Sidney Morning Herald May 12, 2011

Focused on the Fischer Library at Sydney University.
Books get the shove as university students prefer to do research online
Narushima, Yuko
The Sydney Morning Herald March 8, 2011

This article begins, "The University of New South Wales is throwing away thousands of books and scholarly journals as part of a policy that critics say is turning its library into a Starbucks."
Half the books are checking out permanently
Yonkof, Frank at Kent State University September 22, 2010

Neutral campus newspaper article about library renovations and the need to move books to storage.
In Face of Professors' Fury', Syracuse University Will Keep Books on Shelves
Howard, Jennifer
The Chronicle of Higher Education November 12, 2009
Library Renovation Leads to Soul Searching at Cal Poly
Carlson, Scott
The Chronicle of Higher Education September 1, 2006

Library weeding—Opinion

Academic Map Library Weeding: Thoughts and Guidelines Developed from Two Experiences | Bulletin - Association of Canadian Map Libraries and Archives (ACMLA) (
Chandler, Martin
ACMLA Bulletin Winter 2023 No. 171 (2023)
While maps remain an important part of library work, there has been a dearth of scholarly discussion on weeding maps. Some authors have offered suggestions in particular contexts – notably in public libraries and U.S. depository libraries. This leaves significant room for further discussion for those outside of the U.S. context, and those with more general map libraries. Following a literature review and contextual information situating the author's involvement in the topic, a discussion of methods and appropriate considerations are offered for weeding map collections. These guidelines are offered in point form in the conclusion for ease of referral.
Weeding Ebooks - Recommendations | CARLI (
Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois Collection Management Committee
Updated June 2022
Abstract not provided; here is a sample from the article’s introduction:

Why weed ebooks? On first thought, it seems unnecessary: ebooks never get worn, damaged, or lost, and they don’t take up expensive physical space. Weeding ebooks may not be on the mental to-do lists of many librarians. Most ebooks are recent publications that have not had the time to become outdated; and ebooks often evade our attention as they sit in a virtual space, only coming forward when we search in our discovery tools or go looking for them.

But all library sources, regardless of format, may eventually become outdated or superseded. As electronic forms of library sources become prevalent in our collections, they must receive the same attention that is given to physical collections. Providing our users with outdated information simply because of inattention is a lost opportunity for learning, not to mention a violation of Ranganathan’s Fourth Law "Save the time of the reader."
Weeding Is Fundamental: On Libraries and Throwing Away Books | by Claire Sewell | Medium
Sewell, Claire
August 2021
Blog on what to do with books that are to be discarded post-weeding.

Sample from piece: I’m a librarian, and throwing away books is a big part of my job. I love it! Why? Because it means more space on the shelves for new books and other materials that are of current interest to our patrons. Weeding is a fundamental part of the life cycle of the library, but I get it. The decisions librarians make to get rid of books are often confusing and mysterious, especially when a photo of a dumpster full of books starts making the rounds on the Internet.
Collection Development in the Humanities and Social Sciences in a Transitional Age: Deaccession of Print Items
Woolwine, David E.
Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal) Paper 1173 (2014)

A literature review of user preferences, research habits and needs, and citation studies are used to argue that de-accession of print titles in the humanities and social sciences in academic libraries should occur in a conservative fashion as libraries transition to greater digital holdings.
Library Booksavers Facebook Page
Facebook September 22, 2014

This Facebook page was created to "save the books of Albany Library and other Alameda County Library branches from reckless weeding." It includes links to resources and news regarding community opposition to weeding activities within this system.
Secrets of the Stacks: How libraries decide which books to keep--and which don't stand the test of the time
Rose, Phyllis May 13, 2014

A Wesleyan english professor looks at the thorny problem of determining merit when it comes to weeding literature. This is an excerpt from her book that chronicles her "adventures in extreme reading."
Killing Sir Walter Scott: A Philosophical Exploration of Weeding
Raphael, Laura
In the Library with the Leadpipe (blog) July 24, 2013

Weeding a library collection, while an absolutely essential part of collection management, is a much more complex issue than library literature—and library practitioners—would like to admit. It is not just an intellectual and physical process but an emotional one, wedded to deep psychological, cultural, and even metaphysical issues. This article explores some of the reasons why weeding can be so heartbreaking, difficult, and miserable.
Hard Choices: Do Libraries Really Destroy Books?
Holmes, Linda
National Public Radio October 12, 2011

Responds to S. Peter Davis' article "6 Reasons We're in Another Book Burning Period in History."
I Can't Believe You're Throwing Out Books!
Goldberg, Julie
Perfect Whole (blog) May 16, 2011

"I am a librarian but no longer a bibliophile."
State of the Stacks 2011 - Wardman Library, Whittier College (YouTube Video)
Garabedian, Mike (narrator)
Whittier College, Whittier, CA. March 25, 2011

A description of the current state of the book collection at Wardman Library, Whittier College; and the plan to rebuild subject area collections in the stacks over the next several years.
Collaborative print repositories: A case study of library directors' views
Maskell, Cathy et al.
The Journal of Academic Librarianship 36 (2010): 242–249 2010

Surveys library directors in the Ontario Council of University Libraries consortium regarding weeding, last copy print archiving, and the role of the consortium. Responses reveal divergent opinions but an answer lies in partnerships. Cost remains an over-riding factor and the uncertainty of future budgets make commitment to long-term planning difficult.
Fahrenheit 451?: A ‘burning question’ on the evidence for book withdrawal
Booth, Andrew
Health Information & Libraries Journal 26(2) (2009): 161–165 2009
The Art of Weeding (San Diego Mesa College Librarian - YouTube Video)
Gast, Michael
San Diego Mesa College 2009

San Diego Mesa College Librarian Devin Milner shares his thoughts on weeding. (Humor)
Double fold or double take? Book memory and the administration of knowledge
Brabazon, T.
Libri 52(1) (2002): 28-35 2002

This paper investigates the debates encircling Nicholson Baker's "Double Fold: libraries and the assault on paper."
Double Fold: Libraries and the Assault on Paper
Baker, Nicholson
New York: Random House 2001

Pleads the case for saving newspapers and books so they can continue to be read in their original forms.

Library weeding—Policies

Collection deaccessioning and disposal policy | National Library of Australia (
November 2021
The aim of this policy is to provide a clear framework to effectively manage the deaccessioning and disposal of collection material and the disposal of material not selected for the collection. This framework aims to ensure:
  • Consistency of approach.
  • Alignment with the National Library Financial Management Authorisation 2021 and NLA Asset Management Policy.
  • Clarity about responsibilities for approving deaccessioning and disposal.
  • Guidance on criteria for decision-making regarding selection.
  • Compliance with the Library’s legislative and regulatory framework.
  • Accountability through clear reporting on deaccessioning and disposals.

This framework applies to the selection, deaccessioning and disposal of all collection material and supersedes all previous procedures and guidelines.

Guidelines for Deselecting Literatures in English Collections in Academic Libraries
Association of College and Research Libraries, Literatures in English Section, January 26, 2016

"The primary purpose of the guidelines is to aid academic librarians in making informed decisions about deselecting print literature circulating collections when no offsite or compact storage options are available."
Collections Relocation & Withdrawal Policies—University of Guelph
University of Guelph Library Web Site July 2006
Dykes Library - Deselection Policy
University of Kansas Medical Center
OPAL Weeding Guidelines
OPAL Reference Committee
Ohio Private Academic Libraries September 2003
Pepperdine University Libraries Deaccessioning Policy
Pepperdine University Libraries Web Site
Deaccessioning and Annex Transfer Policy for Circulating and Reference Collections
Rutgers Universities Libraries Web Site Last Updated: January 5, 2011
Southern Regional Library Facility (SRLF) - Deaccession Policy and Procedures
University of California SRLF Web Site Revised: October 17, 2014
Stony Brook University Libraries Weeding Policy
Stony Brook University Libraries Web Site
University of Dayton: Deaccessioning Library Materials
University of Dayton Libraries Web Site February 21, 2006
Washington and Lee University Weeding Policy
Washington and Lee University Library Web Site Revised: April 2010

Library weeding—Pre-2000 citations

Weeding naturally
Engeldinger, Eugene A.
College & Undergraduate Libraries 6(1): 46-51.1999

College libraries are not research libraries; hence, college librarians would do well to abandon the notion that size has some relationship to value, to see decay in the stacks as a useful ally, and to use it to weed and improve overall collection quality.
Weeding the Collection—Painful But Necessary
Farber, Evan
Library Issues: Briefings for Faculty and Administrators 19(2) (1998): 1-31998
Weeding Library Collections: Library Weeding Methods. 4th ed.
Slote, Stanley J.
Englewood: Libraries Unlimited 1997
Weeding academic libraries: theory into practice
Bushing, M. and E. Peterson
Advances in Collection Development and Resource Management 1
Greenwich: JAI Press, p. 61-78 1995
Weeding: A quantitative and qualitative approach
Reed, Lawrence L., and Rodney Erickson.
Library Acquisitions 17, (1993): 175-181 1993

This approach to weeding an academic library collection combines recorded use, checking of lists and bibliographies, the expertise of librarians and faculty members, and accessibility to develop a model weeding procedure.
Stock Revision, Retention and Relegation in US Academic Libraries
Bonk, Sharon and Sara Williams
Collection Management in Academic Libraries
Aldershot, England: Gower, p. 213-234 1991
Weeding collections in an academic library system: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Lucker, J.K.
Science and Technology Libraries 6(3) (1986): 11-23 1986
Weeding of Library Materials – Politics and Policies
Stueart, Robert D.
Collection Management VII (1985): 49 1985

An overview of the weeding process is presented along with a review of its nature, purpose, and proper functioning in a variety of environments.
Implementation and Evaluation of a Weeding Program
Reed-Scott, Jutta
Collection Management 7(2) (1985): 59-67 1985
Research Library Deaccessioning: Practical Considerations
Streit, Samuel
Wilson Library Bulletin 56(9) (1982): 658-62 1982

Considers some important questions surrounding the deaccessioning of books and other materials from library collections: Should deaccessioned items be sold? How should materials for deaccessioning be selected? What are the channels for the sale of deaccessioned library materials?
Managing Library collections: the process of review and pruning
Mosher, P.H.
Collection Development in Libraries: a Treatise, Part A.
Greenwich: JAI Press, (1980): 160-161 1980
Trueswell's Weeding Technique: The Facts
Turner, Stephen J.
College and Research Libraries 41(2) (1980): 134-138 1980

Reviews Trueswell's weeding technique, introduces possible application areas, and addresses a number of popular misconceptions.
Yale's Selective Book Retirement Program
Ash, Lee
Hamden: Archon Books 1963

Report of a three year project directed by John H. Ottemiller, associate university librarian, under a grant from the Council on Library Resources.
Weeding a Law Collection
Surrency, Erwin C.
Law Library Journal 50(6) 1957

Temple University Law Librarian wrote that "most libraries have reached 95% or more of their total shelf capacity. … a solution to the problem must be sought by the library profession."

Library weeding—Questions of cost

How weeding adds value to library collections: Weighing the cost of weeding and the cost of keeping books
Chrzastowski,Tina, Harris, Jessica
Santa Clara University Scholar Commons: University Library, Paper 40, 2015

Librarians at the Santa Clara University library have created a cost model for a weeding project that projects: "by 2018, we will have recovered the cost of our weeding project." The cost of their weeding project is compared to the cost of keeping the weeded books using figures from the research "On the Cost of Keep a Book" by Paul Courant and Matthew Nielsen.
The Cost of Deselection (1-10)
Lugg, Rick
Sample and Hold (blog) March–May 2011

This series of 10 blog posts takes a detailed look at activities that drive the cost of deselection. These include handling deselection metadata, reviewing candidate titles, and handling and processing withdrawn titles. In several cases, the cost impact of differing approaches is assessed.
The $4.26 Problem
Lugg, Rick
Sample and Hold (blog) November 2010
On the Cost of Keeping a Book (report chapter)
Courant, Paul N. and Mathew "Buzzy" Nielson
Council of Library and Information Resources
The Idea of Order: Transforming Research Collections for the 21st Century, p. 91. 2010
CLIR Publication 147 2010

The authors conclude that a library bears an annual cost of $4.26 for each volume held in open stacks, and $1.99 per volume if that book spends part of its life in a high-density storage facility.
Books as inventory: Suggested lessons from business
Marcum, J. W.
The Bottom Line 21(1) (2008): 14-16 2008

New books get most of their use in the first two years on the shelf, as a rule. A book that is unused is “dead inventory” from the perspective of this argument.
Life Cycle Costs of Library Collections: Creation of Effective Performance and Cost Metrics for Library Resources
Lawrence, Stephen R. et al.
College & Research Libraries News 62(6) (2001): 541-53 2001

While purchase costs are easy to identify, associated acquisition, cataloging, circulation, and maintenance expenses are difficult to measure and attribute to specific collections. Includes 23 references.
The Economics of Book Storage in College and University Libraries
Ellsworth, Ralph E.
Washington, DC: Association of Research Libraries and Scarecrow Press 1969

Library weeding—Reference collections

Weeding gone wild: Planning and implementing a review of the reference collection
Singer, C.A.
Reference & User Services Quarterly 47(3) (2008): 256-264 2008
Reference collection management policies: Lessons from Kansas
Liestman, Daniel
College & Undergraduate Libraries 8(1), (2001): 85
Reference collection maintenance: Theory and (mal)practice
Majka, David R.
Reference Services Review 24(4) (1996): 67-75 1996
Systematic reference weeding: A workable model
Joswick, Kathleen E. and John P. Stierman
Collection Management 18(1-2) (1993): 103-115 1993
Managing the Reference Collection: The Practice of Pruning
Harloe, Bart and H.M. Barber
The Reference Librarian 29 (1990): 159-173 1990
‘Use’ as a criterion for the weeding of reference collections: a review and case study
Engeldinger, Eugene A.
Reference Librarian 29 (1990): 119-128 1990

The University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire Library has collected data for five years; this data is used to show that even in well weeded collections, which previously depended upon subjective methods, empirical data will prove beneficial.
Let’s get rid of it: a reference librarian’s battle cry
Vincent, S.F.
The Reference Librarian 29 (1990): 145-157 1990

Experiences at Georgia State University.
A program for the systematic weeding of the reference collection
Mathews, Eleanor and David A. Tyckoson
The Reference Librarian 29 (1990): 129-143 1990

The authors believe weeding to be an integral part of the collection development program.
Weeding and Maintenance of Reference Collections
Pierce, S.J. (ed.)
New York: Haworth Press, 1995
Weeding of Academic Library Reference Collections: A Survey of Current Practice
Engeldinger, Eugene A.
RQ, Journal of the Research and Adult Services Division, 25(3) (1986): 366-711986

Reports results of survey investigating aspects of weeding of materials in reference collections at 377 U.S. colleges and universities: existence of written policy or unwritten weeding practice; extent of weeding; frequency; what happens to discards; effect of shelf space, staff time, and use of materials on weeding decisions.

Library weeding—Theory and practice

Questions to Consider when Weeding - Anti-racist Library Collection Building - Research Guides at University of Colorado Boulder
Updated: March 2023
Weeding is a key way that librarians keep collections healthy and relevant, but weeding processes and decisions can perpetuate white knowledge's domination of collections. Oftentimes, weeding decision are made primarily by sets of criteria that often include age and popularity of material. These are factors that are impacted by white supremacy, for example exclusion of materials by BIPOC authors from curricula lead to lower usage, or BIPOC issues are less popular areas of study for a predominantly white student body. This results in materials that would be relevant to BIPOC students or that could represent BIPOC points of view in our physical spaces being weeded.
Weeding Digital Government Information Resources: Considerations and Strategies 49 DttP: Documents to the People 2021 (
Riermaiere, Paul, Bandoma, Will, et al.
DttP: Documents to the People Summer 2021
Weeding is a systematic approach to the removal of resources from a library’s collection. In the weeding process, materials are identified for withdrawal in order to maintain a collection that is accurate, updated, well-used, meets the needs of the users, and is in line with the library’s mission. When weeding tangible resources that are part of the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP), a depository library must ensure that its weeding policy follows the Legal Requirements & Program Regulations of the Federal Depository Library Program and any separate guidelines set by the Regional Depository. However, there are no specific rules or guidelines to follow when weeding digital FDLP resources. This means that individual libraries have more leeway to craft digital weeding procedures that best serve their institution, patrons, and the community at large. In this article, we will discuss initial considerations when developing a process for weeding digital depository materials, we will examine different methods for analyzing a digital collection’s size and usage, and we will review methods for maintenance and weeding of digital resources.
The Weeding Handbook: A Shelf-by-Shelf Guide, Second Edition (
Vnuk, Rebecca
ALA Editions (2022) 978-0-8389-3717-4
"Manages to be a thorough and informative source on weeding library collections and yet also an easy, engaging read ... Recommended." That rave review from Technicalities sums up the acclaim and appeal of this bestselling resource’s first edition. Now Vnuk has revised and updated her text to keep pace with libraries’ longer-term shifts in collection development and access, such as a growing emphasis on digital collections and managing duplicate physical materials. She demonstrates how weeding helps a library thrive by focusing its resources on those parts of the collection that are the most useful to its users.
Weeding a Depository Collection | FDLP
Federal Depository Library Program
Last updated: April 17, 2023
The weeding of depository materials is optional and different criteria apply to libraries based on their designation or library type, and the availability of a regional depository library. If your library is a depository at a federal agency or a highest state appellate court, a regional depository, or a selective depository not served by a regional, read below for information specific to your situation.
Best Practices for Weeding – The Partnership For Shared Book Collections (
June 2021, Last Updated: July 2023
Sample: The American Library Association writes that “regardless of the type of institution, collection maintenance and weeding are important components of a library’s collection management system and are often related to the goals and mission of the organization.” This document addresses considerations for weeding (i.e., deaccessioning) for libraries that are part of a shared print program. Typically, libraries can view weeding from a singular standpoint, which involves determining what its very own optimal collection should contain, based on authority, currency, usage, diversity, and needs. In fact, most academic libraries view collection maintenance (including weeding) as a process driven by teaching faculty and one that reflects the college/university’s mission, goals, and curricula needs. However, collection management must be seen through a different lens when a library becomes part of a shared print program, as its collecting and weeding policies and procedures now must take into account collaborative stewardship, as part of the larger shared print collection. The role of the shared print program must be helping member libraries to make this transition, through information and coordination.
Rightsizing the Academic Library Collection, Second Edition
Miller, Mary E. and Suzanne M. Ward
ALA Editions (March 30, 2021)

The first edition of this book demonstrated the power and flexibility of "rightsizing," an approach that applies a scalable, rule-based strategy to help academic libraries balance stewardship of spaces and the collection. In the five years since Ward's first edition, the shared print infrastructure has grown in leaps and bounds, as has coordination among programs. With this revision, Miller addresses new options as well as the increasing urgency to protect at-risk titles as you reduce your physical collection.
Automated Classification to Improve the Efficiency of Weeding Library Collections
Wagstaff, Kiri L.
Master's Theses. San Jose State University. May 2017.

"In this study, we empirically evaluated methods for automatically classifying weeding candidates. A data set containing 80,346 items from a large-scale academic library weeding project by Wesleyan University from 2011 to 2014 was used to train six machine learning classifiers to predict “Keep” or “Weed” for each candidate. We found statistically significant agreement (p = 0.001) between classifier predictions and librarian judgments for all classifier types. "
Weeding Your Depository Collection (Webinar)
Dahlen, Ashley
Federal Depository Library Program October 6, 2014

"Topics addressed are the “5-year rule,” supersession, and substitution. Also covered is what steps your regional may take to authorize the discards, such as a “needs and offers” or withdrawal list, “eyeballing” the material, and so on. Learn why contacting your regional before starting a weeding project may save you time!"
The Library De-Supply Chain
Lugg, Rick
SCS Insight October 22, 2013

"Because academic libraries have for decades not prioritized deselection and related tasks, work processes tend to be underdeveloped and are only partially supported by vendors. This is beginning to change. Out of necessity, we are inventing what I will call the 'library de-supply chain."
Data-driven deselection for monographs: a rules-based approach to weeding, storage, and shared print decisions
Lugg, Rick
Insights: the UKSG journal, V25, N2. p198-204. July 2012

This article describes the characteristics of a decision-support system that assembles deselection metadata and enables library-defined rules to generate lists of titles eligible for withdrawal, storage, or inclusion in shared print programs.
Weeding the Collection: an analysis of motivations, methods, and metrics
Zuber, Peter
American Society for Engineering Education / Engineering Libraries Division Annual Conference 2012

PDF notes from the presentation are also available.
We are what we own: Deselection strategies for our profession's viability (slides)
St. Petersburg College - Florida Library Association Conference 2011
A Survey of Weeding Practices in New Zealand Academic Libraries
Johnston, Angus
School of Information Management · Te Kura Tiaki, Whakawhiti Korero: MLIS Research Papers 2011
Fundamentals of Collection Development and Management. 2nd Edition.
Johnson, Peggy
Chicago: American Library Association 2009
The Disapproval Plan: Rules-Based Weeding and Storage Decisions
Lugg, Rick and Ruth Fischer
Against the Grain 20(6) 2009
Doing What's Obvious: Library Space and the Fat Smoker
Lugg, Rick and Ruth Fischer
Against the Grain 21 (1) 2009
CREW: A Weeding Manual for Modern Libraries
Larson, Jeanette
Texas State Library and Archives Commission, Austin, TX Last Revised: 2008
Weeding: facing the fears
Dubicki, E.
Collection Building 27(4): p. 132-135 2008

The purpose of this paper is to provide librarians with an approach to weeding, which reduces librarians' fears and concerns of withdrawing books from an academic collection.
Weeding: The Time is Now
Lugg, Rick and Ruth Fischer
Against the Grain 20 (4) 2008
Practical advice for weeding in small academic libraries
Handis, Michael
Collection Building 26 (3) (2007): 84-87 2007

Argues that weeding is appropriate in small, academic non-research libraries and discusses a methodology for approaching it.
Weeding library collections: Conundrums and contradictions
Williams, R.
Collection Management, Edited by G. E. Gorman, 339-361
International Yearbook of Library and Information Management, 2000-2001
Library weeding  |  Bibliometrics  |  Collaborative collection management  |  Collection assessment  |  Collection use  |  Collection futures
Collections research  |  Digital preservation  |  Library space planning  |  Offsite book storage  |  Shared print archives and repositories

Citations and Circulation Counts - Data Sources for Monograph Deselection in Research Library Collections
White, Bruce
College & Research Libraries (pre-print) Feb 2016

"This study examines the correlations between past and future usage and between borrowing and citation of monographs and concludes that both data elements should be used when deselecting research monographs."
Bibliometrics and Book Retention
Lugg, Rick
Sample and Hold (Blog). February 21, 2012
The Impact of Books
Lugg, Rick
Sample and Hold (Blog). February 15, 2012
“Monographs finally join citations database.”
Wood, Amy
Jump, Paul
Times Higher Education. October 13, 2011

The use of bibliometric data to assess humanities scholars could become more widespread with the launch of a citation index of academic books.
“A bibliometric study of reference literature in the sciences and social sciences.”
Wood, Amy
Glanzel, Wolfgang and Urs Schoepflin.
Information Processing & Management 35(1) (1999): 31-44.

Seeks to identify fields where the role of non-serial literature is considerable or critical in terms of bibliometric standard methods.
Completing the Research Picture: The Book Citation Index
Wood, Amy
Thomson Reuters.
Web of Knowledge Web Site
Library weeding  |  Bibliometrics  |  Collaborative collection management  |  Collection assessment  |  Collection use  |  Collection futures
Collections research  |  Digital preservation  |  Library space planning  |  Offsite book storage  |  Shared print archives and repositories

Collaborative collection management

Jump to a specific sub-topic: Case studies and individual programs | Theory and practice

Case studies and individual programs

What should we do with all these books? A feasibility study on collaborative monograph solutions
Woodward, H., & Henderson, H.
Insights, 31, 4. 2018

Following the success of the UKRR, the National Monographs Steering Committee commissioned Information Power Ltd (IPL) to explore potential solutions for the collaborative management of monographs in the UK. Desk research and interviews with existing collaborations worldwide showed that there were three potential models in use: distributed storage and shared collection, physical consolidation of print materials into a shared repository and shared or co-operative storage facility. Interviews with key stakeholders in the UK HE sector and an online survey established that there was an appetite for collaborative management. The key issues include funding, sustainability and business models; shared bibliographic data; collection analysis; governance, leadership and administration; duplicate materials policy; and storage and retrieval from storage. IPL recommended that a national membership organization be formed (UKRR-M) which would offer a national solution with physical consolidation of print materials into a shared repository collection with central administration.
EAST by Northeast
Stearns, Susan
Collaborative Librarianship: Vol. 8: Iss. 1, Article 4. 2016

The Eastern Academic Scholars’ Trust (EAST) is currently completing a large-scale analysis of collections across 40 of the participating libraries. This analysis will provide insight into both uniqueness and overlap across the libraries’ holdings and will result in agreements by the libraries to retain circulating monographs in their local collections for an agreed upon time period and to make those materials available to researchers and scholars from other EAST libraries. In parallel to this collection analysis, EAST is implementing validation sampling across the libraries to better understand volume availability and condition and the role they may plan in retention decisions.
The Evolution of Collaborative Collection Development within a Library Consortium: Data Analysis Applied in a Cultural Context (book chapter)
Osterman, Anne Charlotte and Genya O'Gara and Alison M. Armstrong
Space and Organizational Considerations in Academic Library Partnerships and Collaborations. 2016

This chapter details a collection analysis project carried out within the Virtual Library of Virginia (VIVA) consortium in 2013-2015. This project included an analysis of 12 member libraries' main stacks monographs – a total of just under six million volumes – and demonstrates the importance of relying on established cultural support as well as the challenges of cultural change involved in library collaboration. The project stands out from other similar collection analyses conducted by groups of libraries in its central focus on using the analysis to inform prospective, collaborative collection development.
Shared Print in Indiana
Baich, Tina and Kirsten Leonard.
IOLUG Spring 2015 Conference, Indianapolis, IN, June 12, 2015.

In 2013, 36 Indiana academic libraries came together to take part in the ALI/PALNI Shared Print Project. By sharing their resources, the libraries were able to engage Sustainable Collection Services to analyze the circulating print monographs of each library individually and as a whole. This year’s keynote address will share background on the ALI/PALNI Shared Print Project, the results to date and plans for the future.
Major Maine Libraries, Public and Academic, Collaborate on Print Archiving Project
Kelley, Michael
Library Journal March 15, 2013

"Eight of Maine’s largest libraries, both public and academic, are about halfway through a major and distinctive project for the shared management and archiving of their print collections and the integration of digital editions into a statewide catalog."
Collaborative Stewardship: Building a Shared, Central Collection of Print Legal Materials
Maes, Margaret K. and Tracy L. Thompson-Przylucki
Collection Management 37 (3-4) (2012): 294-3062012

This article describes how two legal resources organizations are currently working toward a collaborative solution to the challenge of providing current materials for today’s legal researchers and preserving materials in print for potential need tomorrow.
Shared Print Collections
California Digital Library. Last Updated: 4/26/12

California Digital Library Web Site
Lugg, Rick
Sample and Hold (Blog) March 2012
CIC Universities to Co-invest in a Shared Print Repository
CLI eNews June 2011
Collaborative Collection Management in a High-density Storage Facility
Seaman, Scott
College and Research Libraries 66(1) (2005): 20-27 2005

This is a case study of four Colorado institutions that opened a shared high-density storage facility. Challenging policy issues are described, as related to selection, ownership, operations, and access.
Last Copy Project Overview
Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois (CARLI)

CARLI Web Site

Theory and practice

Short on Space, Libraries Look to One Another for Solutions
Howard, Jennifer
The Chronicle of Higher Education October 7, 2013

"[These] twin pressure points—too many print books plus new demands on library real estate—have spurred academic libraries to try a set of state and regional experiments to free up library space to suit modern learning styles and still make sure that somebody, somewhere, hangs onto books that make up part of the intellectual record, even if those books haven't circulated in years."
Re-Inventing Shared Print: A Dynamic Service Vision for Shared Print Monographs in a Digital World
Stambaugh, Emily
Against the Grain V25 N42013

There are significant differences in the use of print and digital monographs perhaps creating a need for an alternative service vision.
Rethinking Collection Management Plans: Shaping Collective Collections for the 21st Century
Demas, Samuel and Mary E. Miller
Collection Management 37 (3-4) (2012):168-187 2012

The authors offer practical advice on developing a collection management plan in a collaborative context.
Library Logistics: Archiving and Servicing Shared Print Monographs
Lugg, Rick
Against the Grain June 24(3) (2012) June 2012

The infrastructure for regional or national preservation is being built with the assumption of shared rather than individual responsibility.
Curating Collective Collections
Demas, Sam and Mary Miller
Against the Grain February 24(1) (2012) February 2012

Elements of a good collection management plan include a framework for life-cycle management. What will be retained on central campus in open stacks, what will be transferred to special collections, what will be transferred to storage, what will be reformatted, and what will be withdrawn.
21st-Century Collections and the Urgency of Collaborative Action
ARL Fall Forum Proceedings October 2011

A series of slide decks and video recordings.
Research Librarians Consider the Risks and Rewards of Collaboration
Howard, Jennifer
The Chronicle of Higher Education October 16, 2011
Shaping a National Collective Collection: Will your library participate?
Demas, Sam and Wendy Lougee
Library Issues 31(6) (2011)August 2011

There is intense pressure on libraries to withdraw redundant print holdings that are accessible online. How does a campus administrator help to manage these challenges? How will the nation responsibly manage its enormous legacy collections in the years ahead?
Curating Collective Collections – Prospectus for a New ATG Column
Demas, Sam
Against the Grain January 23(6) (2011): 71 January 2011

The aims of this new bi-monthly column—Curating Collective Collections—are to keep librarians current with issues and developments in shared print archiving, and to broaden the conversation about how we can collectively and thoughtfully re-select (and de-select) and care for our massive print general collections for which digital surrogates exist.
Less is more: Managing monograph collections in the 21st century
UK Research Reserve (UKRR) 2011
Dare to Share
Wellcome Collection Conference Proceedings September 2010

Preservation Advisory Centre (UK)
OCLC Print Archives Disclosure Pilot - Final Report
Beginning in late 2010, an ad hoc Coordinating Committee consisting of several individuals who were active in the shared print (print archiving) community began to explore ways in which libraries could use OCLC features and services to disclose retention commitments and support resource sharing for shared print resources. The Coordinating Committee defined and conducted an OCLC Print Archives Pilot Project to develop a recommended approach and to test and validate its basic functionality.
Regional and National Cooperation on Legacy Print Collections
Kieft, Robert H. and Bernard Reilly
Collaborative Librarianship1(3) (2009): 106-108 2009

This reports on a meeting convened by the Center for Research Libraries on July 10, 2009, in Chicago for representatives of more than a dozen library consortia and other organizations with an interest in shaping a national approach to long-term preservation of and access to print collections.
Shared Print Policy Report
Malpas, Constance
OCLC Research 2009

This report focuses on the joint agreements that memorialize shared intent by formalizing institutional commitments and terms in writing.
The Networked Library Service Layer: Sharing Data for More Effective Management and Co-operation
Gatenby, Janifer
Ariadne 56 July 30, 2008

Janifer Gatenby identifies criteria for determining which data in various library systems could be more beneficially shared and managed at a network level.
Print Preservation at the Local Level – The Five College Experience
Bridegam, Willis. E.
Library Collections, Acquisitions, & Technical Services 28(1) (2004): 29-38. 2004

This paper discusses the development of this depository and considers regional needs for preservation of print materials.
Library weeding  |  Bibliometrics  |  Collaborative collection management  |  Collection assessment  |  Collection use  |  Collection futures
Collections research  |  Digital preservation  |  Library space planning  |  Offsite book storage  |  Shared print archives and repositories

Collection assessment
Ebook acquisition strategy in tertiary institutions in the UK pre- and post-pandemic
Loveland, Zoë 
UKSG eNews 495, July 23 2021

Will student, faculty and researcher preferences continue to be with ebooks if and when campuses fully open? Will we see print return? From the results of the Proquest surveys, it’s unlikely that print books will return to pre-pandemic levels. However, uncertainty about ebook costs and their availability for some disciplines may make print an ongoing necessity in some cases. One thing is clear: the pandemic, whilst being very challenging, rapidly advanced plans for providing more content electronically and having more engagement from faculty over resource list provision from the library.
Less Is More: Origins of University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point Collection Assessment Plan
Reich, Thomas
Proceedings of the Charleston Library Conference 2013

Describes a weeding and collection assessment effort at the University of Wisconsin while focusing on "less is more" perspectives. Their retention guidelines and "multiple copy process" are provided in an appendix."
The SCS Monographs Index
Lugg, Rick
SCS Insight September 25, 2013

The averages reported in the 2013 SCS Monographs Index are based on print monographs data from 57 libraries, representing 26,189,000 holdings.
What is Unique About Unique? An Assessment to Uncover and Value Distinct Collections Within the Main Library Collection
Stoddard, Rick E., Laurel Kristick, Andrea Wirth
2013 Acquisitions Institute of Timberline Lodge May 2013

This study will examine measures of value associated with library collections and how they might be leveraged to test and uncover potentially unique collections.
Academic Branch Libraries: Assessment and Collection Development
Poole, Julie
Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning 3(3/4), (2009): 192-205. 2009

Mercer University's Regional Academic Center Libraries use quantitative and qualitative means for assessing collections in an ongoing project.
Indicators for collection evaluation: A new dimensional framework
Borin, Jacqueline and Hua Yi
Collection Building 27(4) (2008): 136-1432008

This paper bridges two different evaluation models, collection-based and user-based. Includes a literature review.
Assessment in a tight time frame: Using readily available data to evaluate your collection
Crosetto, A. et al.
Collection Management 33(1/2) (2008): 29-50. 2008

This paper highlights how readily available data were used to evaluate the volumes in the reference collection and the circulating collection in order to maximize the space for the renovation projects at the University of Toledo.
Guide to Review of Library Collections: Preservation, Storage, and Withdrawal
Lambert, Dennis K., et al.
2nd ed. (Collection Management and Development Guides, No. 12) Lanham: Scarecrow Press; published in cooperation with the Association for Library Collections & Technical Services 2002

This book offers a thorough introduction to the topic for libraries of all types and sizes wishing to plan and formulate reviews of materials in their general collections, regardless of format.
De-selection: What are we throwing out?
Leja, I
Art Libraries Journal 27(2) (2002): 40. 2002

Published in the UK and available from British Library Direct.
Selecting for Storage: Local problems, local responses and an emerging common challenge
Hazen, Dan
LRTS 44(4) (2000): 176 2000

The author explores criteria that can be employed in selecting materials for storage as well as the interplay between these criteria, the mechanics of storage operations, and the pressures associated with storage goals.
Books Not for College Libraries
Farber, Evan Ira
Library Journal 122(13) (1997): 44-45 1997

Although weeding can save libraries money, shelving time, and increase circulation, it can create serious political problems for college librarians. Proposes a method of compiling lists of candidate titles for weeding based on a comparison of recommended titles lists contained in three editions of Books for College Libraries.
Obsolescence of music literature
Diodato, Virgil P., and Fran Smith.
Journal of the American Society for Information Science 44(2) (1993): 101-112. 1993

Results from this study included average median citation ages of 14.0 years for references to journal articles and 16.0 years for references to all types of documents. Musicology obsolesced most slowly (median citation age equal to 22.0 years), followed by music education (14.3 years), and music theory (9.6 years).
Reviewing for preservation, storage, and weeding
Mosher, P.H.
Collection Management: a New Treatise. Edited by C.B Osborn and R. Atkinson (Foundations in library and information science, 26B). Greenwich: JAI Press. (1991): 375-376.1991
Predicting Individual Book Use for Off-Site Storage Using Decision Trees
Silverstein, Craig and Stuart Shieber
Library Quarterly 66(3) (1996): 266-293 1966

The authors explore various methods for predicting library book use, as measured by circulation records.
Library weeding  |  Bibliometrics  |  Collaborative collection management  |  Collection assessment  |  Collection use  |  Collection futures
Collections research  |  Digital preservation  |  Library space planning  |  Offsite book storage  |  Shared print archives and repositories

Collection use
Can in-house use data of print collections shed new light on library practices? Statistical evidence from a five-year longitudinal study in China
Xi Han, Min Song, Chunqiu Li, Qinghua Zhu
Journal of Librarianship and Information Science February 2018

This study found that in-house use of print materials was positively correlated with the check-out use. In-house use represented 26.78% of the total circulation, on average. Academic bound periodicals and reference books were rarely used in-house. The in-house use ratio differed greatly among subjects, and subjects with frequent check-out use approximated the average ratio. Collections with high check-out use also had a high in-house use ratio. Of the books, 46.1% of the titles were used only in-house, and titles of in-house use were 1.5 times that of check-out use, although the average frequency of in-house use was lower than check-out use.
Are Print Books Dead? An Investigation of Book Circulation at a Mid-Sized Academic Library
Rose-Wiles, Lisa M.
Technical Services Quarterly 30(2) 2013

In this article the author analyzes circulation of print books at Seton Hall University Libraries using the WorldCat Analysis tool and Voyager data. Only 21.5% of the collection circulated between 2005 and 2009, but circulation varied by subject area. Circulation was higher for subjects with more current collections. Over one-third of recent science books circulated, while older science books had low circulation. Print book circulation declined by 23% between 2005 and 2009.
Measuring Collection Use
Lugg, Rick
Sample and Hold (blog) April 2012
The End of Academic Library Circulation?
Kurt, Wil
ACRL TechConnect February 1, 2012

Unless current pattern change, by 2020 university libraries will no longer have circulation desks.
OhioLINK OCLC Collection and Circulation Analysis Project 2011
Julia Gammon and Edward T. O’Neill
OhioLINK Collection Building Task Force, Dublin: OCLC Research 2011

6% of books drive 80% of use.
Report of the Collection Development Executive Committee Task Force on Print Collection Usage
Cornell University Library (Submitted to the Collection Development Executive Committee October 22,2010 Revised November 22, 2010

Approximately 45% of print monographs in the CUL collection published since 1990 have circulated at least once to date; approximately 55% of these books have never circulated.
Determining Use of an Academic Library Reference Collection: Report of a Study
Colson, Jeannie
Reference and User Services Quarterly 47(2) (2007): 168-175

A small academic library did a five-year reshelving study led them to reconsider the nature of the reference collection, and to develop a new collection management policy.
Analyzing Library Collection Use with Excel®
Greiner, Tony and Bob Cooper
Chicago, American Library Association 2007

Practical, step-by-step instructions.
The Impact of Evolving Information-Seeking Behaviors Upon Research Libraries
Heath, Fred
Journal of Library Administration 46(2) (2007): 3-16

This paper describes the efforts of one research library to respond to the pressures of the digital age while sustaining its efforts to build enduring repositories of the human record.
What’s Coming Off the Shelves? A Reference Use Study Analyzing Print Reference Sources Used in a University Library
Bradford, Jane T.
The Journal of Academic Librarianship 31(6) (2005): 546-558

To what extent is the print reference collection being used? Use of the print collection at a small private university was tracked for a four-month period. The results suggest that the reference collection is too big and underused.
A Circulation Analysis of Print Books and E-Books in an Academic Research Library
Littman, Justin and Lynn Silipigni Connaway
Library Resources and Technical Services 48(4) (October, 2004): 256-262

This study found that e-books received 11 percent more usage than comparable print books.
Weeding Book Collections in the Age of the Internet
Banks, Julie
Collection Building 21(3) (2002): 113-119

The weeding project at Southeast Missouri State University presented an opportunity to identify different variables, i.e. shelf level, book jackets, added entries, and untraced series, that impacted a book’s circulation behavior and to consider the relationship between circulation and the Internet/online database activity.
Obsolescence and stress: A study of the use of books on open shelves at a university library
De Jager, K.
Journal of Librarianship and Information Science (Folkestone, England) 26 (1994): 71-82

This article suggests that the Library could develop an informed weeding policy that will enable it to remove from the shelves those materials that have remained unused or little used for 25 years or more.
A use statistic for collection management: the 80/20 rule revisited
Britten, William A.
Library Acquisitions: Practice & Theory 14(2) (1990): 183-189

Trueswell's findings are substantiated for the overall collection in that 20% of the most-circulated items account for about 80% of the circulations. Substantial deviation is found, however, when the statistic is computed for individual LC classes.
Use of Library Materials at a Small Liberal Arts College
Hardesty, Larry
Collection Management 10(3/4)1988

Replication of the Kent study found similar book use pattern.
Does weeding increase circulation? A review of the related literature
Roy, Lorien
Collection Management 10(1-2) (1988): 141-156

This paper examines the literature on weeding over the past century, ans seeks to document results of the effect of weeding on circulation.
A Reply to the Kent Study
Borkowski, Casimir, David Brumble and Murdo J. MacLeod
Library Journal April 1 (1981): 710-713

Urges library administrators to reject the findings of the Kent Study concerning the curtailment of library acquisitions and the sharing of library materials. The Pittsburgh Senate Library Committee raises serious questions of flawed methodology in the conduct of the study.
Correlating the Subjects of Books Taken Out of and Books Used Within an Open-Stack Library
McGrath, William E.
College and Research Libraries XXXII (1971): 280-285

Out-of-library circulation totals were found to be reliable indicators of in-library use. For predicting in-library use (and thus total use) two methods are cited: simple ratio of out to in, and the regression equation.
Use of Library Materials: The University of Pittsburgh Study
Kent, Allen et al.
New York: M. Dekker 1979

One of the most comprehensive studies of collection usage patterns undertaken to date.
Patterns in the use of books in large research libraries
Fussler, Herman Howe and Julian L. Simon
Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1961
The Division of library books in use, and books not in use, with different storage methods for the two classes of books
Eliot, Charles William
The Library Journal 27(7) (1902): 51-56

Eliot, then President of Harvard University—felt by some to be thinking and writing on this topic ahead of its time. Reprinted in Collection Management 2(1) Spring 1978. 7
Library weeding  |  Bibliometrics  |  Collaborative collection management  |  Collection assessment  |  Collection use  |  Collection futures
Collections research  |  Digital preservation  |  Library space planning  |  Offsite book storage  |  Shared print archives and repositories

Collection futures
The future of campus libraries? 'Sticky interdependence'
Ellis, Lindsay
The Chronicle of Higher Education October 09, 2019

"Librarians at universities in the Big Ten athletic conference. . . [have a] vision of a more codependent system in which research libraries pledge to preserve individual collection areas, allowing other institutions to allocate spending elsewhere."
Leading by Diversifying Collections - Ithaka S+R
Bledsoe, Kara; Cooper, Danielle Miriam; Schonfeld, Roger C.; Rieger, Oya Y.
November 2022
Sample: Academic libraries build collections in the context of their parent institutions—primarily to support the institution’s research, teaching, and learning mission. They also build collections that document and preserve the cultural and scientific heritage of our society to represent a wide range of perspectives. In these efforts, universities and their libraries are developing approaches that address calls for greater diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) with a focus on creating space for and the perspectives of historically marginalized groups.[1] Library leadership has an important role in ensuring this work is championed and steered effectively, and this guide is designed in support of that. We also anticipate this guide will be of interest to a broader audience interested in diversifying library collections, including especially those who will partner with leadership to realize the library’s goals in this area.
Turning a page: downsizing the campus book collections
Barclay, Donald A.
The Conversation
August 19, 2015 6.06am EDT

"Traditionalists may not like it, but there is plenty of evidence to suggest that, in the long term, campuses will not require ever more space to house printed books."
Collection Directions: Towards the collective (print) collection
Dempsey, Lorcan
Asia Pacific Regional Council 2014 Membership Conference
13 October 2014

How the emergence of new research and learning workflows in digital environments is affecting library collecting and collections. Several trends are reviewed. In the light of diversifying competing requirements, the need to manage down print and develop shared print responses is discussed.
Collective Collection, Collective Action
Kieft, Robert H. and Lizanne Payne
Collection Management 37 (3-4) (2012): 137-152 2012

A vision for print collections in the 2020s and discussion of developments needed to achieve it.
The Library of Utopia
Carr, Nicholas
Technology Review, Published by MIT.
May/June 2012

Google's ambitious book-scanning program is foundering in the courts. Now a Harvard-led group is launching its own sweeping effort to put our literary heritage online.
Building a Collaborative Digital Collection: A Necessary Evolution in Libraries
Wu, Michelle, M.
Georgetown Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 11-47 (2011): 527-551

This article presents a vision of a collaborative, digital academic law library - one that will harness collective strengths while still allowing individual collections to prosper.
The Big Shift: Managing Research Collections in the Cloud
Malpas, Constance
Keynote at ASERL Meeting in Nashville - OCLC Research - Slides 2011

Mega regions, shared print service provision, and ASERL in perspective.
The User-Driven Purchase Giveaway Library
Lewis, David
EDUCAUSE Review 45(5) (September/October 2010): 10-11
Fire in the rain: academic librarians and the new profession of 'rare book engineering'
Storey, Colin
Conference Paper - ALSR 2010 Conference Towards Future Possibilities

This presentation explores wholly new challenges facing professional librarians. For example, since e-versions are so predominant and eminently cost-effective, lesser well-endowed libraries may no longer be interested in receiving discarded print copies from larger ones.
Managing Collections in the Networked Environment: New Analytic Approaches
Malpas, Constance
OCLC Research - 2010 (pptx: 2.85MB/43 pp.)

In this webinar, Program Officer Constance Malpas and a panel of young library leaders discuss the role of data analysis in library collection management and provide examples of how they're putting aggregated library data to work in their daily operations.
A Nation-Wide Planning Framework for Large-Scale Collaboration on Legacy Print Monograph Collections
Kieft, Robert and Lizanne Payne
Collaborative Librarianship 2(24) (2010):229-233

Libraries are working toward collaborative management and preservation of print journals, newspapers, legal materials, and government documents; they must also establish a similar concerted effort focused on print monographs.
Collections Futures - RLG Annual Meeting 2010 (MP3 Podcast - 68.7 MB)

Approaching an Entity Crisis: Reconceiving Research Libraries in a Multi-Institutional Context
Kenney, Anne R.
Distinguished Seminar Series - OCLC Research (Slides)
23 September 2009
No Brief Candle: Reconceiving Research Libraries for the 21st Century
Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR Publication 142: August 2008)

This report demands change. Common themes include collaboration between librarians, faculty, and information technology experts to articulate strategies and tactical approaches to a rapidly changing environment.
Reshaping ARL Statistics to Capture the New Environment
Kyrillidou, Martha
Statistics & Measurement. ARL 256 (February 2008): 9-11

With the introduction of digital information and the dramatic changes in the nature of content, measuring the size of library collections cannot be what it used to be.
Preserving information, not formats
Wilson, B.
D-Lib Magazine 12(9) (2006): 1

Deciding what to discard, what to digitize or what to retain in print requires careful consideration.
Access in the Future Tense
Greenstein, Daniel et al.
Washington DC: Council on Library and Information Resources2004

Scholars, library directors, university administrators, publishers, collectors, and representatives from the legal and preservation communities came together to explore the challenges posed by the shifting information landscape and to propose directions that can be taken by all in research and education who have an interest in the well-being of research and cultural heritage collections.
Studying the Reader/Researcher without the artifact: Digital problems in the future history of books
Warner, Dorothy and John Buschman
Library Philosophy and Practice 7(1) (2004): 1-13

Studies impact of the trend toward digitization, promoted by those who want information instantly - poses a very fundamental challenge to the essential assumption that those items will exist in future.
Taking FLITE: How new libraries are visioning their way into the future
Boone, Morell D.
Library Hi Tech 20(4) (2002): 464-468

The author takes on the assertion posed in recent educational articles that technology is driving down book circulation and contributing to the decline of reading-center learning.
The changing nature of Collection Management in Research Libraries
Branin, Joseph et al.
Library Resources & Technical Services 44(1) (2000): 23-32

Predicts a shift away from a decentralized system of duplicate print collections to one of fewer central repositories.
Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto
Buckland, Michael
American Library Association

The discussion in this book concentrates on the long-term effects of technological change on library services because they are significant and because they appear to be more predictable than changes from other causes.
Library weeding  |  Bibliometrics  |  Collaborative collection management  |  Collection assessment  |  Collection use  |  Collection futures
Collections research  |  Digital preservation  |  Library space planning  |  Offsite book storage  |  Shared print archives and repositories

Collections research
Strength in Numbers: The Research Libraries UK (RLUK) Collective Collection
Malpas, Constance Brian Lavoie
OCLC Research 2016

In partnership with Research Libraries UK (RLUK), OCLC Research has produced a detailed characterization of the collective collection of the RLUK membership, with special emphasis on print books. This report examines the size, scope, and overlap patterns of the RLUK collective collection, supplemented with additional perspective from comparison to the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) collective collection and the global library system as a whole. This study is of particular interest to the RLUK membership, but is also relevant to any group of higher education institutions engaged in, or planning, cooperative efforts around their collections.
Understanding the Collective Collection: Towards a System-wide Perspective on Library Print Collections
Dempsey, Lorcan, Brian Lavoie, Constance Malpas, Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Roger C. Schonfeld, JD Shipengrover, and Günter Waibel
OCLC Research 2013

This report brings together work that OCLC Research has done in providing a quantitative, analytic, system-wide view of library collections. This work has established an evidence base that has allowed libraries to begin the shift from local provisioning of library collections and services to increased reliance on cooperative infrastructure, collective collections, shared technology platforms, and "above-the-institution" management strategies.
Optimising the number of copies and storage protocols for print preservation of research journals
Yanoa, Candace Arai & Zuo-Jun Max Shenb & Stephen Chanc
International Journal of Production Research 51(23-24)2013

This research presents models for two storage protocols, both of which have the goal of finding minimum-cost or Pareto optimal policies for ensuring, with a high probability, survival of at least one copy for a specified time horizon. One protocol involves archiving only clean copies in a secure environment, and the second protocol is a hybrid approach that combines clean copies with backup copies that can be ‘cleaned up’ to replace clean copies that are lost or damaged.
Print Archive Plans at OCLC (Slides)
Harnish, Kathryn
OCLC 2011

Offers an overview of OCLC's disclosure strategy - to be tested.
Cloud-sourcing Shared Research Collections: Managing Print in the Mass-digitized Library Environment
Malpas, Constance
Dublin: OCLC Research 2011

The objective of this research was to examine the feasibility of outsourcing management of low-use print books held in academic libraries to shared service providers, including large-scale print and digital repositories.
Beyond 1923: Characteristics of Potentially In-copyright Books in Library Collections
Lavoie, Brian and Lorcan Dempsey
D-Lib Magazine 15(11/12)2009

The focus of this article is on print book titles that are either in-copyright or potentially in-copyright.
Library Storage Facilities and the Future of Print Collections in North America
Payne, Lizanne
OCLC Programs and Research 2007

The author concludes that high-density library storage facilities have moved into the mainstream for collection management in academic libraries, and that this is the optimum time for the academic and library community to develop a broader, system-wide approach to maintaining print collections across institutional boundaries.
Last Copies: What's at Risk?
Connaway, Lynn Silipigni
College and Research Libraries 67(4) (July 2006): 370-3792006

WorldCat contains twenty-four million records for items held by only a single OCLC member library. The characteristics of these unique materials are not well understood. This study proposes a conceptual model derived from the examination of materials held exclusively by Vanderbilt University Libraries.
Changing Global Book Collection Patterns in ARL Libraries
Jackson, Mary et al.
Washington DC: Association of Research Libraries 2006

For each of ten world regions, excluding North America, the average number of ARL library holdings per bibliographic record ranges from 2.99 for East Asian books to 6.28 for Latin American books.
Books without Boundaries: A Brief Tour of the System-wide Print Book Collection
Lavoie, Brian and Roger C. Schonfeld
Journal of Electronic Publishing 9(2)Summer 2006
Anatomy of Aggregate Collections: The example of Google Print for Libraries
Lavoie, Brian et al.
D-Lib Magazine 11(9)September 2005

This article offers some perspectives on the Google Print Library Project in light of what is known about library print book collections in general, and those of the Google 5 in particular, from information in OCLC's WorldCat bibliographic database and holdings file.
The Impact of Collection Weeding on the Accuracy of WorldCat Holdings
Young, Jeffrey
A Master's Research Paper submitted to the Kent State University School of Library and Information Science 2002
Global Collective Resources: A Study of Monographic Bibliographic Records in WorldCat
Perrault, Anna H
OCLC Newsletter 249 (2001): 6-72001

A 10% systematic random sample of the WorldCat database was analyzed utilizing the OCLC iCAS product to profile the monographic bibliographic records in WorldCat by type of library, subject, language, and publication date.
Library weeding  |  Bibliometrics  |  Collaborative collection management  |  Collection assessment  |  Collection use  |  Collection futures
Collections research  |  Digital preservation  |  Library space planning  |  Offsite book storage  |  Shared print archives and repositories

Digital preservation
HathiTrust Certified as a Trustworthy Repository by the Center for Research Libraries
HathiTrust Press Release
HathiTrust Web Site March 30, 2011
Bibliographic Indeterminacy and the Scale of Problems and Opportunities of "Rights" in Digital Collection Building
Wilkin, John
Ruminations 1 (CLIR and DLF) February 2011

Wilkin posits the scope of works in the public domain and probable extent of orphan works in our research library collections, based on an analysis of the HathiTrust book corpus.
Opening Up Content in HathiTrust: Using HathiTrust Permissions Agreements to Make Authors' Work Available
Levine, Melissa
Research Library Issues 269 (April 2010): 14-19 2010

This article is about steps put in place by the University of Michigan Library to empower authors to open up access to the in-copyright titles that are deposited in the HathiTrust repository.
HathiTrust: A Research Library at Web Scale
Christenson, Heather
LRTS 55(2) (2010): 93-102 2010

Recent mass digitization projects as well as financial pressures and limited space to store print collections have created a new environment and new challenges for large research libraries. This paper describes on approach to these challenges: HathiTrust ...
CRL Report on Portico Audit Findings
Center for Research Libraries January, 2010
Library weeding  |  Bibliometrics  |  Collaborative collection management  |  Collection assessment  |  Collection use  |  Collection futures
Collections research  |  Digital preservation  |  Library space planning  |  Offsite book storage  |  Shared print archives and repositories

Library space planning
Library Space as a Service
Dempsey, Lorcan
Lorcan Dempsey's Weblog August 31, 2012

Lorcan comments on two aspects of Stanford's very nice new website.
Library Launches Space Planning Initiative
UC Santa Barbara Library
News. UC Santa Barbara Web Site. April 4, 2012
Non-Convertible Space
Lugg, Rick
Sample and Hold (blog) December 2010
Space: The Final Frontier
Lugg, Rick
Sample and Hold (blog) November 2010
The Myth of Browsing: Academic Library Space in the Age of Facebook
Barclay, Donald
American Libraries May 19, 2010

The challenge for academic librarians is how to reduce the size of onsite collections without either destroying the soul of their libraries or sending their faculty to the barricades.
Libraries and Learning: A History of Paradigm Change
Bennett, Scott
Library Space Planning. Urbana, IL. Web Site. 2008

The author traces three paradigms in the design of library space that reflect the transformation of information from a scarce to a superabundant commodity. They are the "reader-centered" the "book-centered" and the "learning centered" paradigms of library space design.
Shaping Our Space: Envisioning the New Research Library
Branin, Joseph J.
Journal of Library Administration 46(2) (2007): 27-53 2007

How much space should be devoted to print collections and services, and how much space should be devoted to digital services, information commons, and other new demands on library space? The answers are to be found through an exploration of emerging library practices of “content management” and “learning space design” that must be linked to the aesthetics and functionality of effective architecture.
Library as Place: Rethinking Roles, Rethinking Space
Bennett, Scott et al.
Council on Library and Information Resources 2005

What is the role of a library when it no longer needs to be a warehouse of books and when users can obtain information without setting foot in its doors?
From the Ashes of Alexandria: What's Happening in the College Library
Demas, Sam
CLIR Reports 129 2005

This article suggests that the college library look to the Mouseion as one model for further integrating itself into the community it serves - and for providing a unique cultural center that inspires, supports, and contextualizes its users.
Spaces for Social Study
Cohen, Patricia
New York Times August 1 (2004): 19 2004
Physical Space for Virtual Services and Collections
Connaway, Lynn Silipigni
Libraries and the Academy 4(4) (2004): 127-131 2004

Now that libraries and campuses are wired, the user is becoming unwired. What is the future of the library as a physical space?
Libraries Designed for Learning
Bennett, Scott
Washington DC: Council on Library and Information Resources 2003

The author asks whether the goal of libraries today might more appropriately be described as “supporting collaborative learning by which students turn information into knowledge and sometimes into wisdom.”
Esprit de Place: Maintaining and Designing Library Buildings to Provide Transcendent Spaces
Demas, Sam and Jeffery A. Scherer
American Libraries 33(4) (2002): 65-68 2002

Discusses library buildings and their role in building community. Reviews current design trends.
Building Blocks for Planning Functional Library Space. Lanham: Scarecrow
Fine, Jerold W.
Lanham: Scarecrow Press 2001
The Library Space Problem, Future Demand, and Collection Control
Lee, Hur-Li
Library Resources and Technical Services 37(2) (1993): 147-166 1993

This paper offers a new way to think about deselection and storage decisions by incorporating the prediction of future demand and cost analysis into one model.
Library Space Planning
Fraley, Ruth A. and Carol Lee Anderson
New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers 1985

A How-To manual for assessing, allocating, and reorganizing collections, resources, and facilities.
Library weeding  |  Bibliometrics  |  Collaborative collection management  |  Collection assessment  |  Collection use  |  Collection futures
Collections research  |  Digital preservation  |  Library space planning  |  Offsite book storage  |  Shared print archives and repositories

Offsite book storage

Jump to a specific sub-topic: Case studies and individual programs | Theory and practice

Case studies and individual programs

Washington Research Library Consortium (WRLC) Shared Collection
WRLC Website Last updated September 2012

WRLC operates a shared offsite storage facility designed to free valuable space in the campus libraries for newer or more frequently-accessed materials. The storage facility provides high-density, environmentally-controlled, retrievable storage for books, audiovisual or microform media, and archival boxes. Individual items are sorted by size in order to store the maximum number of items in the minimum floor area.
Florida Academic Repository (FLARE)
Council of State University Libraries (CSUL) Website Last updated June 2012

The Statewide Storage Facility’s primary purpose will be the storage of low-use materials from the academic libraries in Florida. It will be a high-density “Harvard” model with a non-browsable organization of material, it will be climate controlled, and it will be located in Gainesville. The facility will house shared copies of monographs, journals, and other items which will be equally and readily available to all state university libraries.
A Spa for books
Lugg, Rick
Sample and Hold (blog) May 14, 2012

Facts and observations about ReCAP, a high-density offsite storage facility owned jointly by Princeton, Columbia, and New York Public Library.
Weeding an outdated collection in an automated retrieval system
Bravender, Patricia and Valerie Long
Collection Management 36 (2011): 237-245 2011

In 2008 Grand Valley State University Libraries began a large weeding project in the automated retrieval system (ARS) at its Steelcase Library. An estimated 19,000 volumes were to be removed from the ARS. A systematic weeding of the ARS had never been undertaken and it presented a number of logistical challenges. This article discusses the process that was devised for this large weeding project.
Off-site storage: an analysis
Agee, Jim and Sarah Naper
Collection Building 26(1) (2007): 20-25 2007

A reflective look at PASCAL in the larger context of off-site storage facilities and practices.
Buying Time: The leveraged use of a library storage facility
Knight, R. Cecilia
Technical Services Quarterly 24(4), (2007): 29-42 2007

Grinnell College Libraries
High-Density Off-Site Storage: Document Delivery and Academic Library Research Collections
Seaman, Scott
Journal of Interlibrary Loan, Document Delivery & Information Supply 13(3) (2003): 91-103

This article describes a high-density off-site book storage facility operated by a consortium of the University of Colorado and the University of Denver.
Temporary Remote Book Storage at the University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries
Austin, Brice and Scott Seaman
Collection Management 27(1) (2002): 59-78 2002

Describes the planning and implementation of a temporary facility for 325,000 volumes.
Eliminating duplication in a shared storage facility: Practical and political issues
Oud, Joanne
Against the Grain 13(3), (2001): 1, 20-22 2001
A Collaborative Approach to Collection Storage: The Five-College Library Depository
Bridegam, Willis E.
Council on Library and Information Resources June 2001

This report offers a case study in the advantages and disadvantages of depository libraries, their economics, and the practical and political issues associated with their creation.
Remote shelving comes of age: storage collection management at the University of Michigan
Lougee, Wendy P.
Collection Management, 16(2) 1992

The processes employed at the University of Michigan Library for collection transfers are described, including an analysis of collection use data to develop criteria for storage.
Selecting and moving books to a remote depository: A case study
Seaman, Scott and D. DeGeorge
Collection Management 16(1) (1992): 137-142 1992

The selection, processing, and moving of 10,000 titles from a large academic library to an off-campus depository are described. The move was successfully completed without using professional movers or specialized equipment. The criteria for identifying 10,000 seldom-used or at-risk books from 300,000 volumes are listed, and online catalog processing and the physical move outlined.

Theory and practice

Off-Site Storage and Special Collections: A Study in Use and Impact in ARL Libraries in the United States
Priddle, Charlotte and Laura McCann
College & Research Libraries 2014 (Preprint)

Using data from a survey of special collections directors from ARL member libraries, this article examines both the current use of off-site storage facilities and its impact on core special collections activities.
Damned if you do, damned if you don’t: Texas A&M University Libraries' collection assessment for off-site storage
Tabacaru, Simona and Carmelita Pickett
Collection Building, 32(3) 2013

This paper discusses the Texas A&M University Libraries’ policies that effectively reduced the size of onsite print collections, with minimal impact on the library user community. The paper will also examine some of the challenges encountered during the underlying collection assessment process.
Deal with the Devil: A Participatory Model for Off-Site Storage Selection
Lucker, Amy Genoni
Art Documentation: Journal of the Art Libraries Society of North America, 31(2) Fall 2012

Off-site storage for art history materials is a matter about which there is great discomfort and resistance. The librarians at the Stephen Chan Library at the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University included their primary constituency—the faculty members and students—in the process of selecting volumes for off-site storage. This article describes the decisions made and the methods used to reach the dual goals of achieving 75 percent density in the stacks and gaining the trust of the library patrons.
Changing Library Spaces, Finding a Place for Print
Jilovsky, Cathy and Paul Genoni
VALA 2008 Conference 2008

"The paper emphasizes the Australian situation, including the policy developments that are necessary to optimize the benefits of a fully implemented national print repository for Australia."
Remote shelving services
Deardorff, Thomas C. and Gordon J. Aamot
Washington, DC: Association of Research Libraries 2006

SPEC Kit #295
Library Stacks and Shelving (Libris Design Project)
Siems, Earl and Linda Demmer

Libris Design Web Site
Optimising Storage and Access in UK Libraries: A Study for CURL and the British Library
CHEMS Consulting
Research Libraries UK Web Site 2005

"This report has been commissioned by CURL and the British Library (BL) to assess the current shortage of research library storage, the options for the most efficient and cost-effective nationwide solution and to make recommendations. The work has involved obtaining data from 33 university research libraries and 4 municipal libraries as well as visits to, or conversations with, university and national library staff."
High-Density Off-Site Storage in North American Research Libraries
Seaman, Scott
International Association of Scientific and Technological University Libraries 2004
Books in Active Retirement
Jones, Lois and Patricia A. Fisher
Technical Services Quarterly 22(1) 2004

Addresses selection issues for remote storage
Nicholson Baker wasn’t all wrong: A Collection Development Policy for Remote Storage Facilities
Schlomo, Elka Tenner
Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship 15(30) (2003): 117 2003
A Study of Collaborative Storage of Library Resources
O'Connor, Steve et al.
Library Hi Tech 20(3) (2002): 258-269 2002
The Harvard Model and the Rise of Shared Storage Facilities
Weeks, David and Ron Chepesiuk
Resource Sharing & Information Networks 16(2) (2002): 159-168 2002
Library off-site shelving: Guide for high-density facilities
Nitecki, Danuta A. and Curtis L. Kendrick
Englewood: Libraries Unlimited 2001

This work addresses virtually all major issues in planning, building, and operating high-density storage.
Remote Storage in Research Libraries
Block, David
Library Resources & Technical Service 44(4) (2000): 184-189

The storage of eye-readable information at a location removed from its parent institution has a history of more than two thousand years. Despite changes in the kinds of information that are stored and the technologies that enable their storage, the relationship between a reader’s time and the distance of material from the reader is a constant challenge to information providers.
Library Storage Facilities, Management, and Services
Systems and Procedures Exchange Center - SPEC Kit 242 1999
Reaching Critical Mass: Off-Site Storage in the Digital Age
Chepesiuk, Ronald
American Libraries 30(4) (1999): 40-43

Discusses why digitization is not the solution to libraries' storage problems. Describes Harvard University's first off-site storage model and the creation of book storage facilities by several other universities, also noting collaborative storage arrangements.
The Humanistic Scholars Project: a study of attitudes and behavior concerning collection storage and technology
Lougee, Wendy P. et al.
College and Research Libraries 51 (1990): 231-240 1990

Describes a project that attempted to attenuate negative attitudes of humanities faculty toward remote shelving by providing faculty with direct access to online systems containing records for stored titles. Survey results indicate that faculty attitudes toward the library improved and the use of the remote shelving facility increased.
Remote Storage: Facilities, Materials Selection, and User Services
Systems and Procedures Exchange Center - SPEC Kit #164 May 1990
Library weeding  |  Bibliometrics  |  Collaborative collection management  |  Collection assessment  |  Collection use  |  Collection futures
Collections research  |  Digital preservation  |  Library space planning  |  Offsite book storage  |  Shared print archives and repositories

Shared print archives and repositories

Jump to a specific sub-topic: Reports and articles | Web resources and programs

Reports and articles

Winning the Space Race: Expanding collections and services with shared depositories
Payne, Lizanne
American Libraries September 23, 2014

As libraries increasingly consider shared print agreements—spreading the responsibility for collections among multiple libraries—existing and new library depositories will play an important role as the primary sites for long-term retention and delivery of vital print volumes.
Developing a Statewide Print Repository in Florida: The UCF Experience with FLARE
Arthur, Michael and Ying Zhang
Proceedings of the Charleston Library Conference 2013

This presentation provides an overview of the FLARE project with a specific focus on the UCF experience in selecting and processing materials.
Shared Print on the Move: Collocating Collections
Crist, Rebecca D. and Sherri L. Michaels
Proceedings of the Charleston Library Conference 2013

This paper explores the opportunities and issues associated with collocating shared print storage using the CIC Shared Print Repository as an example.
Lily Endowment Awards Private Academic Library Network of Indiana (PALNI) $225,000 For Shared Print Collection Initiative
Price, Gary
Library Journal INFOdocket October 13, 2013

Indianapolis-based Lilly Endowment Inc. has awarded $225,000 to the Private Academic Library Network of Indiana (PALNI) for the Shared Print Collection Project, an initiative of PALNI and its partner organization Academic Libraries of Indiana (ALI) that will inventory the holdings of 34 of Indiana’s academic libraries to identify overlapping and unique resources.
Short on Space, Libraries Look to One Another for Solutions
Howard, Jennifer
The Chronicle of Higher Education October 7, 2013

"[These] twin pressure points—too many print books plus new demands on library real estate—have spurred academic libraries to try a set of state and regional experiments to free up library space to suit modern learning styles and still make sure that somebody, somewhere, hangs onto books that make up part of the intellectual record, even if those books haven't circulated in years."
Major Maine Libraries, Public and Academic, Collaborate on Print Archiving Project
Kelley, Michael
Library Journal March 15, 2013

"Eight of Maine’s largest libraries, both public and academic, are about halfway through a major and distinctive project for the shared management and archiving of their print collections and the integration of digital editions into a statewide catalog."
The OHDEP Project: Creating a Shared Catalog for the Northeast Ohio Depository
Downey, Kay
Collection Management 37 (3-4) (2012): 322-332 2012

This paper describes the motivation for the project and planning, implementation, and impact of a shared catalog on depository workflow and service at the Northeast Ohio Regional Depository.
The Story of a Shared Last Copy Repository in Australia: The CARM Centre Stage 2 Development
Wright, Janette et al.
Collection Management 37 (3-4) (2012): 271-293 2012

This article describes how a new business model was developed and implemented for the construction of Stage 2 of The CAVAL Archive and Research Materials Centre, a shared last copy repository for low-use published materials.
All Together Now: Planning for Shared Print Archiving at Canada's Western Universities
Bird, Gwen and Gohar Ashoughian
Collection Management 37 (3-4) (2012): 260-270 2012

The Council of Prairie and Pacific University Libraries plan for a regional shared print archive. The article describes the challenges of meeting short-term regional need for repurposed space and of addressing broader preservation issues.
CIC Co-Investment to Protect Print Research Library Collections in the Midwestern United States
Sandler, Mark et al.
Collection Management 37 (3-4) (2012): 237-259 2012

The Committee on Institutional Cooperation’s two-year initiative to affirm a list of core principles for developing and managing a shared print storage program.
From Collaborative Purchasing Towards Collaborative Discarding: The Evolution of the Shared Print Repository
Clement, Susan K.
Collection Management 37(3-4) (2012): 153-167 2012

Traces the major development of the progression from the local storage facility to the regional print repository.
Collection Management. Special Issue. Shared Print Repositories
Fischer, Karen S., Editor
Collection Management 37(3-4) (2012)

Collection of 11 original articles on aspects of collaborative collection management and archiving.
Cooperative Print Archiving by Discipline: Developing an Infrastructure to Sustain Scholarly Resources in Agriculture
Wood, Amy
Center for Research Libraries - Slides 2011
Ohio Regional Depositories: Moving from Warehousing Separate Collections to Servicing Shared Collections
O’Connor, Phyllis and Melanie F. Smith
Collection Management 33(1-2) (2008): 129-142 2008

In Ohio, the space needs of campus libraries are changing just as book depositories are filling up. In response to this situation, the university libraries are re-examining the depositories to see if the space can be used even more efficiently.
North American Storage Trust (NAST) Project History
OCLC Web Site 2007
From Failure to Success: Creating Shared Print Repositories
Murray-Rust, Catherine
ACRL 12th National Conference Proceedings (April 7-10, 2005, Minneapolis, Minnesota): 146-154 2005
Developing Print Repositories: Models for Shared Preservation and Access
Reilly, Bernard F.
Council on Library and Information Resources, Publication 117 2003

As librarians survey their burgeoning holdings, they can readily see that their retrospective collections are seldom used. This does not mean, however, that these materials have lost their value for research and teaching. How can libraries best manage these collections?
PAPR: Preserving America’s Printed Resources
A conference held at the Chicago Historical Society, July 2003
Library Collections, Acquisitions & Technical Services 28(1) (2004): 1-125 2004
PAPR (Preserving America's Print Resources): Toward a National Strategic Effort Report on the Planning Day Discussions
Center for Research Libraries
Center for Research Libraries Web Site 2003

Includes the PAPR Action Agenda
PAPR - Preserving America's Printed Resources. Presented at The Role of Repositories and Libraries of Record Conference on July 21, 2003
Sleeman, Bill
Chicago: DttP: Documents to the People 32(1) (Spring 2004): 42-43

Web resources and programs

Center for Research Libraries (CRL) Print Archives Registry
Center for Research Libraries

Center for Research Libraries Web Site
Center for Research Libraries (CRL) Print Archiving Community Forum
Center for Research Libraries
Center for Research Libraries Web Site
Connect NY Shared Print Archive Project
Connect New York

Connect New York Web Site Initially published: 11/21/2013

Provides a description of the Connect New York Shared Print program that launched in October 2012 as well as links to key documents: the MOU, Last Copy Guidelines, and details about the retention lists.
Do We All Need to Keep That? Shared Print Archiving in COPPUL
Bird, Gwen and Lenora Crema
BC Library Conference May 2013

This conference presentation presents a profile of the Shared Print Archive Network from the Council of Prairie and Pacific University Libraries (COPPUL) as of May 2013.
Maine Shared Collections Strategy (MSCS)
Maine Shared Collections Strategy 2013

Provides details and updates of a project by eight of Maine's largest libraries to create a strategy for shared management of print collections in the state.
Michigan Shared Print Initiative (MI-SPI)
Midwest Collaborative for Library Services 2013

Describes the Michigan Shared Print Initiative, which launched in 2012 and provides links to the MOU and other project documents.
WEST: Western Regional Storage Trust (Web Page)
California Digital Library Web Site Last updated: March 14, 2011

The Western Regional Storage Trust (WEST) is a distributed retrospective print journal repository program serving research libraries, college and university libraries, and library consortia in the Western Region of the United States.
University of California Libraries' Shared Print Collections
California Digital Library Web Site Last Updated: April 26, 2012

Provides information the UC Shared Print Strategic Direction, goals, and objectives, and provides reports on the UC Shared Print programs.