Indicators and subfield codes
‡a-‡h Enumeration captions
‡a First level of enumeration (NR)
‡b Second level of enumeration (NR)
‡c Third level of enumeration (NR)
‡d Fourth level of enumeration (NR)
‡g Alternative numbering scheme, first level of enumeration (NR)
‡h Alternative numbering scheme, second level of enumeration (NR)
‡i-‡m Chronology captions
‡i First level of chronology (NR)
‡j Second level of chronology (NR)
‡k Third level of chronology (NR)
‡l Fourth level of chronology (NR)
‡m Alternative numbering scheme, chronology (NR)
‡n Pattern note (NR)
‡o Type of unit (R)
‡p Number of pieces per issuance (NR)
‡u Bibliographic units per next higher level (R)
‡v Numbering continuity (R)
‡w Frequency (NR)
‡x Calendar change (NR)
‡y Regularity pattern (R)
‡z Numbering scheme (R)
‡2 Source of caption abbreviation (R)
‡3 Materials specified (NR)
‡8 Field link and sequence number (NR)
Field definition and scope
This field contains the caption that is appropriate for each level of enumeration and chronology that is present in a related 865 Enumeration and Chronology-Indexes field and codes that define the publication pattern of the item. A display may be generated from the contents of field 855 and the related 865 field(s) to which it is linked by subfield ‡8 (Field link and sequence number).
A general description of the four types of holdings data fields, their relationship to each other, and the repeatability of each is given in the 853-878 Holdings Data-General Information section.
Guidelines for applying content designations
Both indicator positions are undefined; each contains a blank ().
First Indicator - Undefined
Second Indicator - Undefined
‡a-‡h - Enumeration captions
Subfields ‡a-‡h contain the captions for the levels of enumeration applicable to a bibliographic item. These caption subfields are correlated with the enumeration subfields ‡a-‡h in the 865 Enumeration and Chronology field linked to the 855, although the same subfields need not always be present. Full correlation of caption and enumeration level subfields ‡a-‡h in linked 855/865 fields is recommended in OCLC local holdings records. If there is no caption on the item for some level, a caption may be invented and enclosed in brackets ([ ]) or an asterisk used in place of data in order to achieve full correlation.
When alternative numbering schemes are applicable to an item, subfields ‡g and ‡h contain the alternative enumeration captions. If captions for more than two levels of alternative enumeration are required, an 868 Textual Holdings field is used.
When only chronology captions are used on an item (that is, the item carries no enumeration), the chronology captions are contained in the relevant enumeration caption subfields (‡a-‡h). If a chronology caption is not to be used in a display of the 865 Enumeration and Chronology field, it is enclosed in parentheses, for example, (year).
When the enumeration consists of the number of units held followed by a term describing the units, the entire phrase is contained in the 865 field, and the 855 field contains the term unit (in parentheses if display is not desired).
‡a - First level of enumeration
Subfield ‡a contains the caption for the highest level of enumeration. The designation for an unnumbered (e.g., new ser.) or a numbered (e.g., ser. 5) series is considered part of the caption.
‡b - Second level of enumeration
Subfield ‡b contains the caption for the second level of enumeration.
‡c - Third level of enumeration
Subfield ‡c contains the caption for the third level of enumeration.
‡d - Fourth level of enumeration
Subfield ‡d contains the caption for the fourth level of enumeration.
‡g - Alternative numbering scheme, first level of enumeration
Subfield ‡g contains the caption for the highest level of an alternative numbering scheme.
‡h - Alternative numbering scheme, second level of enumeration
Subfield ‡h contains the caption for the second level of an alternative numbering scheme.
‡i-‡m - Chronology captions
Subfields ‡i-‡m contain the captions for the levels of chronology applicable to a bibliographic item. These caption subfields are correlated with the chronology subfields ‡i-‡m in the 865 Enumeration and Chronology field linked to the 855 field, although the same subfields need not always be present. Full correlation of caption and chronology level subfields ‡i-‡m in the 855/865 fields is recommended in OCLC local holdings records. Because bibliographic items generally do not carry chronology captions, a caption may be invented and enclosed in brackets ([ ]) in order to achieve full correlation.
When an alternative chronology scheme is applicable to an item, subfield ‡m contains the alternative chronology caption. If captions for more than one level of alternative chronology are required, an 868 Textual Holdings field is used.
When only chronology captions are used on an item (that is, the item carries no enumeration), the chronology captions are carried in the relevant enumeration caption subfields (‡a-‡h) and no captions are recorded in subfields ‡i-‡m. If a chronology caption is not to be used in a display of the 865 Enumeration and Chronology field, it is enclosed in parentheses, e.g., (year).
‡i - First level of chronology
Subfield ‡i contains the caption for the highest level of chronology.
‡j - Second level of chronology
Subfield ‡j contains the caption for the second level of chronology.
‡k - Third level of chronology
Subfield ‡k contains the caption for the third level of chronology.
‡l - Fourth level of chronology
Subfield ‡l contains the caption for the fourth level of chronology.
‡m - Alternative numbering scheme, chronology
Subfield ‡m contains the caption for an alternative chronology scheme.
‡n - Pattern note
Subfield ‡n contains an explanatory note citing the specific year and issue used to prepare the regularity pattern coding expressed in the field.
‡o - Type of unit
Subfield ‡o contains a caption that describes the type of unit (e.g., annual buyer's guide, subject index) in the enumeration hierarchy when it has no associated sequence numbering. When used, subfield ‡o immediately follows the caption to which it applies.
855 ‡8 1 ‡a (year) ‡o Alphabetical index
865 3 ‡8 1.1. ‡a 1969/1978
If the title of the unit is different from the indication of the type, the title is recorded in subfield ‡o (Title of unit) of the 865 Enumeration and Chronology field.
‡p - Number of pieces per issuance
Subfield ‡p contains a numeric value that represents the number of physical parts or pieces received per issuance. This technique allows for describing the behavior of items issued in parts. Subfield ‡p is only coded in cases where the number of parts or pieces is different from the publishing frequency expressed in subfield ‡w. All codeable frequency information should be placed in subfield ‡w.
‡u - Bibliographic units per next higher level
Subfield ‡u contains either a number that specifies the total number of parts or units that comprise the next higher level of enumeration or the code var or und. Subfield ‡u may be used with each level of enumeration except the first level (subfield ‡a or ‡g) because there is no higher level. When it is used, subfield ‡u follows the caption subfield for the enumeration level to which it applies.
<n> - Number of parts
The total number of parts that constitute the next higher level of enumeration for example, a quarterly publication requires 4 issues to make 1 volume. Because subfield ‡u is variable in length, no leading zero is used for a single-character number.
Combined issues are counted as one part.
var - Varies Code
Code var is used when the total number of parts that constitute the next higher level of enumeration varies so much that a specific number in subfield ‡u would be meaningless.
und - Undetermined
Code und is used when the next higher level of enumeration is known to have parts but the number of parts is unknown.
‡v - Numbering continuity
Subfield ‡v contains a one-character code that indicates whether the enumeration has continuously incrementing numbers or whether the numbering restarts at the completion of a specific unit. Subfield ‡v may be used with each level of enumeration except the first level (subfield ‡a or ‡g). Subfield ‡v follows the caption subfield and the subfield ‡u (Bibliographic units at next higher level) for the enumeration to which it applies.
c - Number increments continuously
r - Number restarts at the completion of the unit
‡w - Frequency
Subfield ‡w contains either a one-character alphabetic code or a number that indicates the publication frequency of the item. Subfield ‡w is not related to a specific caption. It is input following the last chronology caption used. Specific publishing pattern information is contained in subfield ‡y (Regularity pattern), including exceptions to the frequency coded in this subfield. Subfield ‡p is also used when both a frequency code and number of pieces per issuance need to be recorded for multipart titles.
A one-character alphabetic code is used for a publishing pattern that has a fundamental periodicity, for example, code q indicates that the item is published quarterly.
a - Annual j - Three times a month
b - Bimonthly k - Continuously updated
c - Semiweekly m - Monthly
d - Daily q - Quarterly
e - Biweekly s - Semimonthly
f - Semiannual t - Three times a year
g - Biennial w - Weekly
h - Triennial x - Completely irregular
i - Three times a week
A number is used to specify the number of issues per year when no codeable periodicity exists. Because subfield ‡w is variable in length, no leading zero is used for a single-character number.
‡x - Calendar change
Subfield ‡x contains one or more two- or four-character numeric codes that indicate the chronological point at which the highest level increments or changes.
A two-character code identifies the month or season of change. A four-character code in the pattern mmdd(2 for the month and 2 for the day) identifies the month and day of change. A month or day code of less than two digits is right justified and the unused position contains a zero.
Month Day Season
01-12 - Month 01-31 - Day 21 - Spring
22 - Summer
23 - Autumn
24 - Winter
When there is more than one change in a year (for example, 12 numbers per year are issued as 2 volumes per year), all of the calendar change codes are contained in one subfield ‡x and the codes are separated by a comma. Subfield ‡x is not related to a specific caption. It is input following the last subfield.
‡y - Regularity pattern
Subfield ‡y contains codes that describe the regularity of the publishing pattern coded in subfield ‡w (Frequency). The subfield may be structured as either a chronology type or enumeration type. Both types begin with a publication code.
The first one-character code in both the chronology type and enumeration type indicates whether the subsequent codes refer to the publication or the nonpublication of part(s) of the item or the combination of either enumeration or chronology elements.
c - Combined
o - Omitted
p - Published
The chronology type of regularity pattern is structured as:
<Publication Code><Chronology Code Definition>,<Chronology Code><Chronology Code>,...
The subfield may contain one or more chronology codes that are associated with the publication code and chronology code definition that are in the first and second character position of the subfield. The subfield may be repeated to allow for coding more than one publication code/chronology code definition/chronology code string to indicate regular exceptions to a specified regularity pattern (i.e. normalized irregulars).
Chronology Code Definition
The second one-character code in the subfield indicates whether the subsequent Chronology Code(s) represent the name of a day, a numeric month or month and day code, a code for a season of the year, or a code for a week of the month or year. If the subfield describes regularity in terms of enumeration, this code is "e".
d - Day
m - Month
s - Season
w - Week
y - Year
The chronology code in the chronology type indicates the designation of the part of the item for which regularity pattern information is provided. Multiple codes are separated by a comma. A slash (/) is used to designate combined issues.
Two-character alphabetic or numeric codes are used for days, weeks, months, and/or seasons. A four character code is used to indicate a year or year combination. A code of less than two digits is right justified and the unused position contains a zero.
Chronology Type and Code Patterns
|chronology type code||possible chronology cod e pattern||example||example meaning|
|d||DD||08||Eighth day of each month|
|w||MMWWdd||0599tu||Last Tuesday in May|
|w||MMWWdd||0802we||Second Wednesday in August|
|w||MMWW||1204||Fourth week in December|
|y||YYYY||yyy1/yyy2||Span over 2 years|
|pattern||meaning||characteristics||possible values - summary|
|WW||week||numeric||99, 98, 97, 00, 01, 02, 03, 04, 05|
|SS||season||numeric||21, 22, 23, 24|
Day of week - dd
mo - Monday
tu - Tuesday
we - Wednesday
th - Thursday
fr - Friday
sa - Saturday
su - Sunday
Week - ww
Month - MM
Week of Month - WW
99 - Last
98 - Next to Last
97 - Third to Last
00 - Every
01 - First
02 - Second
03 - Third
04 - Fourth
05 - Five
Day of Month - DD
Season - SS
21 - spring
22 - summer
23 - autumn
24 - winter
The enumeration type is structured as:
<Publication Code><Enumeration Code Definition>,<Enumeration Code><Enumeration Code>,...
An enumeration code may occupy the second and third positions after subfield ‡y to provide for regularity patterns for items that use only enumeration for sequencing and/or those items whose sequencing must be specified separately when combinations occur.
Enumeration Code Definition
The second code in the subfield indicates whether the subsequent codes represent enumeration rather than chronology. When code "e" is used, an additional numeric code is added to indicate the level of enumeration to which the regularity applies.
e1 - Enumeration, 1st level
e2 - Enumeration, 2nd level
The enumeration code following the enumeration code definition indicates the designation of the issues of the item for which regularity pattern information is provided. Multiple designations are separated by a comma. A slash (/) is used to designate a combined issue.
The presence of continuous numbering (subfield ‡v, code c) in conjunction with an enumeration code signals the combination of specific numbers in the sequence of specific issues. Because of the continuous numbering, the actual enumeration values cannot be used to express the enumeration in subfield ‡y. Enumerative values must be represented in terms of the number of issues expected to be published to allow combined issue prediction to occur.
Automated systems may construct algorithms to predict the second level of continuous enumeration based on the starting value of the second level of enumeration at the beginning of the subscription cycle.
The Regularity pattern codes, along with additional examples, are maintained by the Library of Congress and are available online at www.loc.gov/marc/chrono_patterns.html.
‡z - Numbering scheme
Subfield ‡z contains a six character code string used to designate the numbering scheme used on a publication. The codes allow for recording different numbering schemes at different levels of enumeration.
Type of designation
The first one-character code indicates whether the numbering is a number, letter or combined (number first or letter first). Combined should only be used when one of the elements is a constant designation (e.g., 1a, 2a, 3a), rather than actually two different levels of enumeration (e.g., 1a, 1b, 1c).
a - Number
b - Letter
c - Combined, number first
d- Combined, letter first
e - Symbol or special character
The second one-character code indicates if a numbering scheme is conveyed as alphas and applies both to those coded in the previous position as "b" or to Roman numerals.
a - No case
b - Lower case
c - Upper case
d - Mixed case
Script Code/Type Code
The third through sixth positions indicate either the script used in the numbering scheme or, for numerals or symbols that are not in alternate scripts, the type of numeral or symbol used. The script code is a four-character code from the list at www.unicode.org/iso15924/. The type code is as follows:
an - Arabic numeral
rn - Roman numeral
sy<symbol> - Symbol
‡2 - Source of caption abbreviation
Subfield ‡2 contains the MARC code that identifies the source of the abbreviations used in the captions of the field. Code from Caption Abbreviation Source Codes.
‡3 - Materials specified
Subfield ‡3 contains information that specifies the range of volumes or dates to which the field applies.
‡8 - Field link and sequence number
Subfield ‡8 contains data that identifies linked holdings data fields and may also propose a sequence for the linked fields. Subfield ‡8 is required in 855 fields in OCLC local holdings records.
The structure and syntax for subfield ‡8 in the 855 field is: ‡8<linking number>
The linking number is the only data element used in subfield ‡8 in the 855 field. It is a variable-length whole number that occurs in subfield ‡8 in all 865 fields that are to be linked to the 855 field. Fields with the same linking number are considered linked. A linking number of "0" (zero) is not used in this field.
Subfield ‡8 is always the first subfield in the 855 field.
A period following an abbreviation used as a caption is carried in the MARC record.
To indicate that ordinal numbers should be displayed, a plus sign (+) may be used preceding the caption. If no caption is entered, a plus sign may be recorded alone to indicate display of the corresponding 865 subfield as an ordinal number.
Note that there is no requirement that this technique of distinguishing between ordinal and cardinal numbers be used, nor is there any requirement that any differentiation need be made. A system would require internal language tables to display the correct ordinal numbers. There is no provision in the holdings format for communicating these tables.
If there is no caption on the item for some level, a caption may be invented and enclosed in brackets () or an asterisk used in place of data in order to achieve full correlation. Parentheses are used around a caption to suppress display.
853 0 3 ‡8 1 ‡a v. ‡b [no.]
[Caption is invented and is not on the piece]
853 2 0 ‡8 1 ‡a v. ‡i (year)
863 3 0 ‡8 1.1. ‡a 1-10 ‡i 1988-1998
The abbreviations used in subfields ‡a-‡h are recorded according to the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (Appendix B: Abbreviations).
A single 855 Captions and Pattern field may apply to more than one 865 Enumeration and Chronology field if the contents of the subfields remain constant. The 855 field is repeated when the contents of the subfields varies. For items that have continually varying captions and pattern, an organization may choose to use the Textual Holdings (868) field.