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OCLC index of papers presented at conferences worldwide

Why select this database?

Subjects included

  • The wide variety of subjects discussed at the covered meetings.

Database details

Database name PapersFirst
Short database name PPF1
Available on FirstSearch, WorldCat Discovery, and
Sources Included in each record.
Number of records Over 9.4 million
Coverage 1993 to present
Update frequency Weekly
Producer OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc.


Index labels and search examples

Use a colon after an index label (for example, au:) when you are not certain of your search terms. Use an equal sign after an index label (au=) for an exact match search. You can search with an index label from any search screen. The information you type overrides any default menu selections. The following examples show sample rather than actual searches.

Search indexes Labels Examples
Keyword kw: pesticide+
Accession number no: cn008437117
Author au: messier
Author phrase au= chipperfield, m p
BL location bl: 0729.836310
Conference location cl: manchester
Conference name cn: european
Conference name phrase cn= European conference 9th
Conference sponsor sp: society
Conference sponsor phrase sp= american society of mechanical engineers
Date of conference dk: apr 1994
Editor ed: marletta
Editor phrase ed= marletta giovanni
Identifier id: astronomy
Language phrase ln= german
Notes nt: mountain
Publication date pd: 1994
Publisher pb: cambridge
Series title se: oncology
Series title phrase se= international journal of photoenergy
Source so: cardiology
Source phrase so= american ethnic rhetorics
Standard number sn: ISBN = 0080440711

ISSN = 0730-3564
Subject su: brain
Subject phrase su= neural networks robotics
Title ti: fire
Title phrase ti= Fighting fire with fire brain stimulation for the treatment of epilepsy
Year yr: 1998

Index use and structure

What follows is a list of FirstSearch indexes and the combination of USE and STRUCTURE attributes that can be used to access them.

  1. For any FirstSearch label where multiple USE attributes are listed all the attributes will provide the exact same search result sets.
  2. Any USE attribute that is not marked as a restrictor is available via the SCAN service.
  3. Limiters are specially implemented indexes and are not available for scanning. Terms for these must be ANDed with other terms to limit the size of the result set. See the table provided for each limiter to determine valid terms and their associated meaning.

FirstSearch Indexes and USE and STRUCTURE attributes used to access them:

Index Description Use Attribute Structure Attribute Indexed Fields and Subfields
Keyword (kw) Any 5110 2 245/a




Keyword All (ka) Any 1016 2 100/a






Accession Number (no) Control number local 12 2 035/a
Author (au, au=) Author Name 1003 1,2,101 100/a


BL Location OCLC Defined 5663 2 980/x,y
Conference Location (cl) Name-Geographic 5119 2 711/c
Conference Name (cn, cn=) Author-name-conference 1006 1,2 711/a
Date of Conference (dk) OCLC Defined 5066 2 711/d
Editor (ed, ed=) OCLC Defined 1020 1,2 799/a
Identifier OCLC Defined 29 2 653/a
Language Phrase* (ln=) Code-language 54 1 546/a

Notes (nt) Note 63 2 500/a
Publication Date (pd) Date 30 2 008
Publisher (pb) Name-Publisher 1018 2 799/d
Series Title (se, se=) Title-series 5 1,2 799/k
Source (so, so=) Title-host-item 1033 1,2 799/s,t
Standard Number (sn, sn=) Identifier-standard 1007 1,2 799/x,z
Sponsor (sp, sp=) OCLC Defined 5710 1,2 970/w
Subject (su, su=) Subject 21 1,2 653/a
Title (ti, ti=) Title 4 1,2 245/a

Year* (yr) Date-publication 31 2,4,5 008


* Language and Year also serve as restrictors when they are not the first term in a search.

Record display information

List of FirstSearch fields for PapersFirst and the MARC fields to which they correspond:

Field Name MARC field(s)
Year 008
Accession Number 035/a
Language Code of Text 041/a
Author 100/a

Title 245/a
Alternate Title 246/a
General Note 500/a
Language Note 546/a
Material Type 598/b
Identifier 653/a
Conference Author 711/a,c,d
Parent Book Information 799/a,s,t
Parent Book Publisher Information 799/d
Chapter pagination 799/g
Parent Book Series Title 799/k,2
Parent Book ISSN 799/x
Parent Book ISBN 799/z
Non-English (language) 917/j
Language of Text Code Expanded 936/0
OCLC Record Display Type  949/x
Conference Sponsor 970/w
British Library Serial Shelfmark 980/x
British Library Book Location 980/y


The following restrictors can be used only in conjunction with an index search. They must be added to an index search with the Boolean AND to receive results:

Limiter Type Input Use Attribute Structure Attribute
Language* No limit




54 1
Year* All years

Single year

range of years

19xx, 20xx

31 4,5

* Language and Year also serve as restrictors when they are not the first term in a search.

Copyright information

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