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Citation patterns

Discover how to use citation patterns for Serials management in OLIB.

►Serials Management Reference Data > Citation Patterns


Citation patterns are combined with frequencies on each journal to produce the Issue Titles (issue labelling). Frequencies determine the interval between issues; Publication Patterns determine what the issues are called. Libraries vary in the way they wish this information to be presented to their users - some prefer the issue title to exactly replicate the information published on the issue - others prefer to use a standard citation method. Citation patterns can be created or amended to accommodate either method.

A range of standard citation patterns are delivered with OLIB and these will suffice for many journals. New patterns can be created if required.

Once the necessary Citation pattern for a journal exists, you simply select that pattern in the Serials Title record to generate the expected issues.

Each pattern can have up to 6 elements, each having (potentially) a type, sub-type, pre-text or post-text. Wherever '_' exists, a space is inserted.

For example:

  Type Sub-type Pre-text Post-text
1st element Numeric Increment Volume_ ,_
2nd element Numeric Reset Issue_ _._
3rd element Date Date (MON YYYY)    

(Format: For special date formats only. See below, Subtype: Date)

This creates a citation of:

Volume 1, Issue 1 - January 2008

1st element: a running number with the word Volume in front of it - i.e. Volume 1, 

2nd element: a running number with the word Issue in front of it - but that the running number resets to 1 when a new volume starts, i.e. Issue 1 - Issue 12 and then back to Issue 1

3rd element: a date in the Month/Year format.

Create a new citation pattern

  1. Go to Serials Management Reference Data> Citation Patterns.
  2. Use new record in context to input a new record.
  3. Alternatively select a pattern similar to the one to be created and use the available action Copy Citation Pattern to create an identical record to quickly edit. The new citation pattern will be automatically populated with the short and long descriptions and the type of frequency copied.
  4. Enter the Key.
     Note: The Key IDs for the standard citation pattern codes have been assigned in order to reflect a level of grouping, e.g. volume/issue citation patterns are codes 00001 to 00005, issue only patterns are codes 10001 to 10020, and so on. When entering a new citation pattern, it is advisable to assign a new Key ID so that this grouping is retained.
  5. Enter a long and short Description.
  6. Define the Elements using the following values:
    Whether the element is:
    • Numeric
    • Numeric (Roman), e.g. Part I, Part II, Part III, etc.
    • Alphabetic, e.g. Part A, Part B, Part C, etc.
    • Date
    • Special, e.g. for the season part of the volume/issue/season date citation pattern. The text of the special element is defined in the Special Pattern Details field.  For Special types, the Sub-type is irrelevant.
    For Numeric types (including Alphabetic), the Sub-Type defines whether the number increments, resets or is continuous:
    • Increment: The number increments after so many issues. Note that the number of issues it increments after, is set at Serial title level. In this way, the same citation pattern code can be used for different titles with the same citation pattern except that the volume number increments after a different number of issues. For example, a monthly serial which publishes 3 volumes a year with 4 issues per volume can use the same citation pattern code as a monthly serial which publishes 2 volumes a year with 6 issues per volume, or a serial with 1volume per year with 12 issues per volume.
    • Reset: The number resets to 1 when the previous numeric element increments.
    • Continuous: The numbering is continuous, even if the previous element increments.
    • For Date types, the Sub-Type defines the format of the date element in the issue title:
      • DD MON YYYY, e.g. 1 January 2002
      • MON YYYY, e.g. January 2002
      • YYYY, e.g. 2002
      • DAY DD MON YYYY, e.g. Tuesday 1 January 2002
      • WEEK YYYY, e.g. Week 1 2002
         Note: The date types are pre-configured and cannot be modified.
    • Date (Other): If you select this option in the Sub-Type column, you should then enter the date format you want OLIB to use in the Format column immediately to the right of the Sub-Type column. This allows you to construct your own date format within acceptable Oracle date formats. Any Oracle date format can be used. Click Format below to view the valid formats.
    Format (used with Sub-Type Date(Other))
    Oracle Date Formats: Used in conjunction with Sub-Type Date (Other). These are the valid Oracle date formats taken from Oracle documentation:
    • CC Century
    • SCC Century BC prefixed with “-”
    • YYYY Year
    • SYYY Year BC prefixed with “-”
    • IYYY ISO Year
    • YY Year
    • RR Year rollover for Y2K compatibility
    • RRRR Year rollover
    • YEAR Year spelt out
    • SYEAR Year spelt out BC prefixed with “-”
    • BC BC/AD Indicator
    • Q Quarter (Jan-Mar=1, Apr-Jun=2, etc.)
    • MM Month of year (01...12)
    • MON Month (JAN...DEC)
    • MONTH Month in full (January ...December)
    • FMMONTH Month in full (January...December)
    • RM Roman month (I, II...XII)
    • WW Week of year (1-52)
    • W Week of month (1-5)
    • IW ISO std week of year
    • DDD Day of year (1-366)
    • DD Day of month (1-31)
    • D Day of week (1-7)
    • DAY Day in full (Monday...Sunday)
    • FMDAY Day in full (Monday...Sunday)
    • DY MON...SUN
    • DDth Ordinal day (e.g. 7th)
    • DDSPTH Spelt out ordinal day (e.g. SEVENTH)
    • J Julian Day
    • HH Hours of day (1-12)
    • HH12 Hours of day (1-12)
    • HH24 Hours of day (1-24)
    • SPHH Hours of day spelt out (e.g. SEVEN)
    • AM am or pm
    • PM am or pm
    • A.M. a.m. or p.m.
    • P.M. a.m. or p.m.
    • th Hour converted to ordinal format (e.g. 1 becomes 1st)
    • MI Minutes (0-59)
    • SS Seconds (0-59)
    • SSSSS Seconds past midnight (0-86399)

    • The following punctuation -/,.;: can be included in any date format:
    • -/,.;:
    • Any other characters can be included “in quotes”.
    • Formats that start with FM indicate that leading and/or trailing zeros and blanks are suppressed, e.g. FMDD Month YYYY denotes 9 June 2011 not 09 June 2011.
    • Date formats that are spelt out in characters will adopt the capitalisation of the format, e.g. MONTH denotes JANUARY whereas Month denotes January ; DDSPTH denotes TWENTY-SEVENTH whereas Ddspth denotes Twenty-Seventh.

    The text that should be included in front of the element in the issue title. E.g, entering Vol. in the Pre-Text field will cause the system to generate the issue title as Vol.1.

    If you require the system to include a space in the pre-text, this should be entered as an underscore (_). For example, if the issue title includes the volume number as Volume 1, the pre-text for the volume element in the citation pattern code should be entered as Volume_. 

    The text which should be included after the element in the issue title. E.g, entering ,_ in the Post-Text field will cause the system to generate the issue title as Volume 1, followed by the pre-text of the next element.

     Note: Although the Pre- and Post-Text are defined in the citation pattern code, they can be re-defined at title level before you generate issues. In this way, the same citation pattern code can be used for different titles with the same citation pattern except for the pre- and/or post-text.

    Special Pattern Details

    For citation pattern codes with one of the elements set to Special, the Special Pattern Details field defines what text is included in the issue title for that element. E.g. for the volume/issue/season/date citation pattern, the Special Pattern Details defines the season description. A separate entry is entered in Special Pattern Details for each different issue in a cycle. E.g. for the volume/issue/season/date citation pattern, there are 4 different issues - Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter, so for this citation pattern code, the Special Pattern Details field includes four entries.

    The sequence of the entries is significant. OLIB will generate issues with the relevant text in the order that the entries appear in the Special Pattern Details field. The sequence can be changed as required.


This Citation pattern is to have the date first in a month and year format, followed by the volume and part information. It will produce an issue title like this: January 2008 Vol. 1, Pt. 1

  1. For the 1st element select Date from the Type section.
  2. In the Sub-Type field select MON YYYY.
  3. Complete the Pre-text and Post-text fields. For the 1st element this will just be a space (the underscore character _ ) in the Post-text field. For the 2nd element a comma is required before the space (underscore).
  4. Then enter the data for the 2nd and 3rd elements. The completed form will look like this:
      Type Sub-type Pre-text Post-text
    1st Element Date MON YYYY.   _
    2nd Element Numeric Increment Vol_ ._
    3rd Element Numeric Reset Pt._  
  5. Save the details and once the search is refreshed the new pattern displays in the hitlist.

If a standard citation format (e.g. 1 No.1, 2004) is required for all journals then edit all existing patterns, altering the date format, Pre-text and Post-Text fields as required.