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Proximity operators

 Note: Proximity operators are not available in WorldCat Discovery or WorldShare.

Use the following proximity operators to indicate relationship and, optionally, position of search terms in relation to each other:

Proximity Operators Function Examples
with (or w) Finds both terms, in the order typed, with no words between.
  • ti:aluminum w wiring
  • Enclose phrase in quotation marks:
  • ti:"aluminum wiring"
Followed by a number (1 to 25), finds both terms, in the order typed, with no more than the specified number of words between (e.g., ti:aluminum w2 wiring).
near (or n) Finds both terms, in any order, with no words between. ti:moon n eclipse
Followed by a number (1 to 25), finds both terms, in any order, with no more than the specified number of words between. ti:chicken n3 egg

Guidelines

  • Type operators between search terms to combine them.
  • For Word searches, if you do not want the system to use with and near as operators, enclose the word in quotation marks. For example, to serach for the title Neighbors Near and Far, which includes near and and, normally treated as operators, type ti:neighbors "near" "and" far.
  • Do not use for browsing (scanning indexes).
  • Do not use for derived searches.
  • Do not truncate a music publisher number or Government Document Number in a combined search; type the complete number.
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